The criminal jargon. The cases of using zoonim lexical substandard units
Astrakhan State University
The phenomenon that reflects the characteristics and specificity of the criminal subculture, its degree of organization, hierarchy, its professionalism, is without any doubt, a language which, among the other definitions, is called “criminal jargon”.
Criminal jargon – is not only Russian phenomenon, and it is not only a phenomenon of the modern era. You can meet this language almost in any lingvoculture, in any society where there is the criminal strata and the criminal community.
The language of the criminal representatives is inexpressive, illogical and inconsistent. It has also a great emotional intensity and expressiveness.
The language of the antisocial groups has mixed lexics, which is used both in criminal and common vocabulary, and it is very easy to pass from one to another – it depends on the situation.
Zoonim lexical substandard units are the components of substandard world where the man is the object of the evaluation expression. At the present stage the research of the new scientific anthropocentric paradigm development of substandard lexics gets the basic value. The Lexical Substandard Units analysis and their representation in languagesystem is one of the actual directions in modern linguistics.
The structure of criminal jargon includes a large number of zoonim lexical substandard units. The names of the animals are very colorful and they serve in order to define the criminal specialties and hierarchy among the prisoners, to denote the workers of the law enforcement agencies and for the person’s description.
The lexical structure of criminal jargon due to zoonim substandard units can be divided into several thematic groups.
The thematic group “The moral qualities” is the most numerous. The prisoner who steals the food or things from his co-prisoners gets the name “rat” (êðûñà). "Rats - the lowest class in the criminal hierarchy”. The zoonim lexical substandard units “hen” (êóðèöà) and “bitch” (ñóêà) also mean – traitor, informer.
The word “reptilian” (ãàä) describes the man who argues against the moral principles. The criminal jargon has the set expression “to ask as from the reptilian” – “It is very serious expression. You can hear it only if the prisoner steals something from his co-prisoners”.
In criminal jargon we also can define the thematic group “Criminal crafts”. It is also rather numerous. So, the criminal who makes pickpocketing gets the name “babochnik” (áàáî÷êà – butterfly). “Capercaillie” (ãëóõàðü) – is a drunken robber. “Horse” (êîí¸ê) – the fraudster. The inexperienced thief, the small speculator the prisoners call “cormorant” (áàêëàí).
One more thematic group – “Criminal castes. Hierarchy”. “Boar” (êàáàí) – the leader of the criminal group. “- Boar called yesterday. He wanted to talk with us”.
The thematic group – “Criminal castes. Sex”. “Goat” (êîç¸ë), “cock” (ïåòóõ) – are the names of the punks from the social prison caste. “Zhuchka” (æó÷êà – êëè÷êà ñîáàêè) – the lesbian.
The thematic group “Criminal colours”. Shushara (êëè÷êà êðûñû) – the prisoner, who very passively and cautiously looks to alien criminal world. “Bitch” – the prisoner, who voluntarily cooperates with the administration of a prison. It was a period when there were the old classical thieves’ laws on the territory of the prisons.
The thematic group “Police”. “Goat” – the highly respected police officer. “Legavyj” (ïîðîäà ñîáàê) – the police officer. “Spider” (ïàóê) – the prison warden.
Thematic group “Habits. Alcohol”. “Bream” (ëåù) – the screwed up person.
Thematic group “Gender identity”. “Heifer” (ò¸ëêà) in criminal language – a depraved woman. “Bitch” – the prostitute.
Zoonim lexical substandard units are the carriers of the culturally relevant information of the objective reality reflected in the language.
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6. Dlja podgotovki dannoj raboty byli ispol'zovany materialy sajtov: