Kholodova Galina Mikhailovna
Karaganda State Industrial University
The value of acmeology for formation the professional competence of students as the future specialists
For modern pedagogical science expansion of the terminological device the steady place borrows the concept of the acmeological approach when its methodological importance is defined by its essence. In pedagogical science the philosophical understanding of acmeology as a science studying laws and mechanisms of development of the person during its maturity, is transformed because of its orientation on the research of the laws causing the person achieving the tops of professionalism in activity. The important task of acmeology in this sense is finding-out what it should be generated in the person in his childhood and youth he could realize his potential successfully at the period of his maturity. Acmeology is a new direction of interdisciplinary researches of the person. The necessity of its origin is explained basically by the sociocultural context of development of a transitive society which is compelled to solve the problems of the global-crisis character. Actually one of the major human resources of the optimum solution of these problems are high professionalism and creative skill of experts. As acmeology studies laws and technologies of development of professionalism and creativity as acme-forms of optimum realization of every possible kinds of professional activity it means that the integral-complex science gets special value for theoretical development and removals of social intensity in the sphere of human mutual relations.
It is symbolic that the occurrence of this term concerns to the period of rough intellectual and social search of 1920th years when there were such branches of scientifically-practical knowledge as heuriology (P.Engelmeer), ergonology (V.Myasizhev), reflexology (V.Bekhterev) and also acmeology (N.Rybnikov). If the socio-cultural prototype of the occurrence of acmeology was such current in Russian poetry of the beginning of XX century as acmeism (N.Gumilev, S.Gorodetsky, A.Akhmatova, etc.), the research works of F.Galton and V.Osvald about the age laws of creative activity and I.Pern studied the dependence of its efficiency from various psychobiological factors became its natural-science precondition.
Under the assertion of some researchers in the development of acmeology it is possible to emphasize four basic stages:
- latent, when the historical, sociocultural, scientific-theoretical preconditions of distinguishing a new sphere of human science in scientific knowledge were developed;
- nominational, when the social need for such knowledge was realized and designated by N.Rybnikov's introduction in 1928 the special term " acmeology ";
- incubatory, its beginning is dated the occurrence of conceptual idea of N.Kuzmina about the necessity of constallation the researches of acmeological problematics as a new area of human science. The precondition were systematization and generalization, the analysis and differentiation of human science of the second third of XX centuries in B.Ananeva's works. This stage finished with promotion of the program of the expansion of acmeology as special discipline;
- institutional, this stage is connected with creation of some social structures: acmeological faculty, laboratories in high schools and, at last, the International academy of acmeological sciences. Within these scientifically-educational structures researches are investigated, acmeological technologies and vocational training are developed.
However, it is difficult to agree with those scientists who allocate the fifth stage of development of acmeology, connected with its philosophical substantiation. So, historiosophical approach of V.P.Bransky and S.D.Pozharsky allowed to watch the integral approach and interrelation of acmeology with cultural science, with philosophical anthropology, with ethnoacmeology, V.V.Ilyin and S.D.Pozharsky analysed the development of acme as the element of philosophical knowledge in history of philosophy, under the direction of N.V.Kuzmina there was a school which investigated a fundamental problem – the development of abilities of the person and their influence on productive activity in all spheres of life.
These five stages of development of acmeology as a science allowed to draw a conclusion about a new quantum leap of acmeological knowledge. The stage of practical application of acmeological knowledge and acmeological method began.
Acmeology as any other area of scientific knowledge has not only general scientific principles, but also the concrete disciplinary features which characterize it as a specific branch of in detail-methodical knowledge. As it is formed scientific discipline the definition of its in detail-methodical specificity and categorical-methodological context represents a special task where the ways of decision depend on the further development of the concrete acmeological researches. There are three basic methodological orientations in them: natural-science, technological and humanitarian.For us last as belonging to the sciences of the human beings, acmeology finds the ontologic definiteness as the most importantone on the basis of genetic interaction with these sciences during historical development and, on the other hand, in the subject isolation from them as formed independent discipline.
Certainly before the occurrence of acmeology psychologists, sociologists, teachers investigated questions of professionalism, creativity, formation of adults which in many respects are similar with acmeological problematics. However the special accent on studying of maturing of skill, its topmost acme-forms led to the occurrence and registration of a special science with specific subject and methods.
Owing to the humanitarian nature acmeology is closely connected with such social sciences, as history and cultural science, sociology and economy, political science and conflictology, pedagogics and ecology.
The central line in interaction acmeology with these sciences serves that sociocultural space where the becoming of the human being as an individual and his professional self-realization in the selected field of activity is carried out.
To study and analyze the acme-forms, to develop successful and creative professional skill and optimum technologies of development of professionalism acmeology carries out the complex researches of processes and ways of realization by various experts of professional work, synthesizing for this achievement of other sciences about the person, first of all philosophy, sociology, psychology, physiology, genetics and pedagogics. Thus it is excessive to explain the importance of acmeology for pedagogics of the higher school developing the theory and a technique of vocational training.
So detailed description of essence of acmeology will be simple to understand if to investigate it in a concrete context. In our case it concerns problematics of professional competence which, as well as acmeological problematics, it is an innovative idea for pedagogics and consequently still studied a little, but developed around itself the brisk scientific polemic. To professional competence of the expert as to the pedagogical problem the researchers began to address basically in 80-90s of XX century.
The questions of professional competence of the expert draw attention of many modern scientists which recently displace accent on social values of personal qualities of the expert. Thus today there were certain directions in pedagogical development. The first direction is connected with the phenomenon "culture" which is a result of development of the person, his erudition and good manners (E.V.Bondarevskaya, B.S.Gershunsky, A.I.Piskunov, E.V.Popov, N.Rozov, etc.).
The common cultural competence is presented as a set of three aspects:
- semantic, which includes the adequacy of judgement of understanding the situation in a cultural context, that is in the context of available cultural samples of understanding, attitude, estimation;
- problem-practical, providing the adequacy of recognition of the situation, adequate definition and the effective performance of the purposes, problems, norms in given conditions;
- communicative, focusing attention to the adequate dialogue in situations of a cultural context and as to such situations taking into account the corresponding cultural samples of communication and interaction.
In this case the professional competence is a derivative component of any person’s common cultural competence. Thus, E.V.Bondarevskaya is guided by the notion «pedagogical culture» to satisfy the definition of pedagogical competence, as dynamic system of pedagogical values, ways of activity and professional work of the teacher.
The second direction unites pedagogical research of professional competence where this concept is considered as a system of qualities, skills (T.G.Brazhe, N.I.Zaprudsky, etc.). T.G.Brazhe represents professional competence as the system including aspects of philosophical, psychological, sociological, cultural and personal order.
«Professional competence of people working in the system «individual - individual» (teachers, doctors, lawyers, maintenance staff), is defined not only by fundemental knowledge and skills but also valuable orientation of the expert, motives of his activity, self-understanding in the environment, style of relationship with people he works with, his culture, ability to develop his creative potential.
In a proffession of the teacher the knowledge of the methods of a subject teaching; ability to understand and influence an inner world of the pupils; respect for them are added to this list. The absence of even one of the components destroys the whole system and reduces the efficiency of the teacher’s activity». Hence, such parameters of the investigated concept, as possession of a professional knowledge and skills, valuable orientations in society, the culture shown in speech, style of dialogue, the attitude of the teacher, the practical activities and its realization are noted.
N.I.Zaprudskiy understands as professional competence «the system of knowledge, skills and abilities, professionally significant qualities of the person providing an opportunity to fulfil the professional duties of a certain level».
The third direction is connected with the proffessional training of the future specialists (E.M.Pavlyutenkov, A.I.Piskunov, etc.).
A.I.Piskunov includes in the content of proffessional training invariant and variant parts forming some set, possessing elements of integrity. An invariant (obligatory) part consists of: fundamental knowledge in the field of philosophical, psycological-pedagogical and methodical sciences; technological knowledge in the field of the organization of various forms and kinds of educational and out-of-class activity; professional-pedagogical skills. Variant part considers the pecularities of a structure of scientific preparation of the student, his personal interests and propensities.
E.M.Pavlyutenkov treats professional competence as the form of realization of the pedagogical activity, caused by «the profound knowledge of properties of transforming subjects (the person, group, collective) of this activity, easy control of instruments of production, conformity of the concrete subject content of work, character of carried out works to subjective, professionally important qualities of the teacher, its self-estimation, industry». Differently, representatives of the given direction consider, that competence and skill are close concepts.
The fourth direction of researches of professional competence is connected with an establishment of a parity of concepts «professional competence» and «readiness for professional work». In the theory of proffessional training the last has received wide enough development, that’s why the wide enough range of associative raw becomes clear when it is treated as: directive (D.N.Uznadze, D.S.Prangishvili, etc.); a prestarting condition (V.A.Alatortsev, A.D.Ganyushkin, A.T.Puni, etc.); the active condition of the person causing activity (V.P.Bezukhov, N.I.Kuznetsova, etc.); a condition of vigilance (L.S. Nersesyan, V.N.Pushkin, etc.); set of professionally caused requirements to the teacher (I.F.Isaev, E.N.Shiyanov, etc.); the complex structural formation including professionally significant qualities of the person, motives, needs, interests, skills and abilities (E.P.Belozertsev, K.M.Durai-Novakova, I.A.Kolesnikov, etc.); an essential component of professional competence (Y.V.Koinova, A.I.Mishchenko, etc.); result of proffessional training (V.I.Danilchuk, M.I.Dyachenko, V.V.Serikov, V.A.Slastenin, etc.).
A.I.Mishchenko understands professional competence of a teacher as «the unity of its theoretical readiness to think pedagogically and practical readiness to operate pedagogically». Y.V.Koinova considers professional competence of the person «as the individually-integrated qualitative characteristic of the subject of activity, a complete condition and readiness of the person for its realization».
Readiness for pedagogical activity, in O.E.Lomakina's opinion, is «a compound component of professional competence and represents reflexed orientation of the teacher on a pedagogical proffession, a world outlook maturity; aim at constant professional and personal perfection, self-realization and self-education; aim at forecasting and dynamism in designing author's technology of children training and education».
The fifth direction considers professional competence from the psychological point of view as the characteristic of the person of the teacher and brings into its content productive component (M.K.Kabardov, A.I.Panarin, etc.). As a whole, competence is a parameter of «the formation of the necessary skills and abilities, a level of their possession». A.I.Panarin considers professional competence «as the most important characteristic of the teacher’s preparation, set of communicative, constructive, organizing skills, and also ability and readiness to use these skills practically in the work».
The following direction of scientific and pedagogical researches of a problematics of professional competence treats it as qualities of the person of the teacher which are necessary not only for direct participation in training and education of pupils, but also for the organization of own and student's activity.
There represented also such important direction which considers professional competence as the level of specialist education (B.S.Gershunsky, A.D.Shekatunova, etc.). Category «professional competence» is defined, mainly, by a level of proffessional training, experience and individual abilities of the person, its aspiration to continuous self-education and self-improvement, the creative attitude to business. A.D.Shekatunova treats professional competence as a level of «education and the general culture of the person, characterised by mastering of theoretical means of cognitive and practical activities».
And one more direction which defines professional competence from position of activity approach. So, under A.K.Markova's statement professional competence represents set of five sides of work activity of the teacher: pedagogical activity, pedagogical communication, the personality of the teacher, the level of knowledge (the ability to be taught), good breeding (the ability to be educated). Inside of each of these blocks objectively necessary pedagogical knowledge is singled out (information from psychology, pedagogics about the essence of the teacher’s work, features of its pedagogical activity, communication, the personality, about mental development of pupils, their age features), skills (the actions performed at a high enough level), professional psychological positions (steady systems of attitudes of the teachers to the pupil, to colleagues, to themselves, defining their behaviour, expressing their self-estimation, a level of professional claims and closely connected with teacher’s motivation, comprehension of the sense of the work), the psychological features mentioning it as cognitive sphere (pedagogical thinking, a reflection, self-estimation, observation), and motivational (purpose formation, motives, interests of the person). In the subsequent works the scientist treats professional competence as «the mental condition, allowing to operate independently and responsibly, the person’s possession of the ability and skill to carry out the certain labour functions consisting in results of work of the person».
A number of scientists (N.V.Kuzmin, E.S.Kuzmin, Y.Emelyanov, Z.F.Esareva, etc.) introduce the concept «professional-pedagogical competence» which represents set of skills of the teacher as the subject of pedagogical influence in the special means to structure scientific and practical knowledge with the purpose of the best decision of pedagogical problems.
Thus, the working out of the problematics of professional competence in pedagogical science allows to reveal its certain interlinking to idea of the acmeology approach which can be defined as follows:
· acmeology as the science studying various (natural-science, technological, humanitarian) aspects of development of acme-forms of professional skill, has not passing value for formation and professional competence of the future specialists as any scientific working out in this area at the account of the acmeology approach will be methodologicalally provided to have firm theoretical positions;
· acmeology, opening essence of professional skill in a context of humanitarian ideas, will promote the most effective selection of methods and forms of the organization of proffessional training of the future specialists in conditions of development of postindustrial culture, search of decisions of global-crisis problems, characteristic for transitive societies;
· acmeology as the new branch of man-knowledge will enrich pedagogical toolkit of revival of the spiritual beginnings of the person, its valuable orientations without which professional competence of the future specialists will represent the truncated, not sanguineous variant of their self-realization in forthcoming professional work.
The list of the literature used:
1) Zagvyazinskiy V.I. The theory of education: modern interpretation: Textbook for the students of Higher pedagogical institutions. - Ì.: the Publishing center "Academy", 2001. - 192 p.
2) Ilyina T.A. Pedagogics: lectures. Textbook for the students of Higher pedagogical institutions. - Ì.: Prosveshenie, 1984. – 496 p.
3) Pedagogics: Textbook for the students of Higher pedagogical institutions / V.A.Slastenin, I.F.Isaev, A.I.Mishchenko, E.N.Shiyanov. - Ì.: Shkola - Ïðåññ, 1998. - 512 p.
4) Pidkasistiy P.I. The process of education in conditions of democratization and humanization of schools: Textbook / P.I.Pidkasistiy, B.V.Goryachev. / MOPI named after Krupskaya -, 1991. - 75 p.
5) Pligin A.A. Person orientated education. History and practice: the Monography. - Ì.: ÊSP +, 2003. - 432 p.
6) The ways of perfection of methods of education at the higher schools: Methodical recommendations / NPA SSS. Scientific research institute of higher education.-, 1991. - 80 p.