PROFESSIONAL CHOICE AS THE RESULT OF PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION AND CONSEQUENCE OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF SENIOR PUPILS
Yerdenova Meruyert, master student by specialty «Social Pedagogic and Self-cognition»,
Department of Pedagogic and Management of Education,
Faculty of Philosophy and Political Science,
Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty, the Republic of Kazakhstan
Scientific adviser: Kassen G.A., associate Professor
The problem of choosing a profession is always in front of high school students, and now it becomes particularly relevant in connection with the changes taking place in our society. The choice and selection of a suitable profession, work, providing professional growth and material prosperity - have always been one of the most important concerns and problems of every person, and the young in particular. The problem of professional self-determination becomes extremely acute and actual nowadays. It takes place amongst others due to extended crisis and changes happening globally and domestically in social, economic and educational spheres along with the growing competition in the labor market, which entails the need for “highly skilled professionals”. The research of the problem of choosing a profession shows that high school students have difficulties with professional and personal self-determination due to the following reasons:
1) lack of knowledge of technology for profession choice,
2) inability to plan their personal and professional paths,
3) spontaneous approach for choosing a profession based:
4) on the advice or under the pressure of parents,
5) on a prestige of certain specialty,
6) on the amount of scholarships granted for certain specialties.
In the new economic era and based on the student’s abilities and desires, the creation of conditions for the personal choice of professional activity formation and further self-realization becomes critical.
The choice of life path is closely connected with the choice of a man by his business. One manages to find him at the beginning of the journey; others to the cause of their lives go a long way. Yes and this choice is carried out in different ways. In the person of a person who is not engaged in his own business, who has not found himself, the society bears irreparable spiritual and material losses. At the same time, the person himself is causing great damage because of dissatisfaction with his life, lack of self-realization, an unenviable financial situation. A person becomes unsuccessful, often because at the beginning of his life he could not find a place where he could creatively realize himself, experience joy and freedom of labor by vocation. To the majority of people who have found their calling, satisfaction comes first of all in self-realization in work, in creativity, in the joy of the benefits of the results of their activities, and not only in material reward.
The fundamentals of professional selection existed before our era. For example, in some written works created in Ancient Babylon and China a human’s studies were linked to his personal qualities and skills. In France, in 1849, the book "Guide to choosing a profession" is considered the first book that attempts to make a scientific explanation to the problem of choosing a profession.
In America, in 1898, the consultancy of high school students on the choice of professions began. In Boston schools the choice of profession was compared to the choice of a spouse. The idea was that young people should have a clear understanding of as many professions as possible, and should not take on the most accessible at the moment.
Most of the principles of vocational guidance, "open" at the time, still remain relevant today. The first state institution for vocational guidance in Russia appeared in 1897. Books were produced to explain to teenagers the features of the professions they choose. So, "Stories about the factories and plants" of Karl Weber were published for forty years. Even in the troubled year 1917, Nikolai Rybnikov's article "Psychology and Choice of Profession" was published, from which young people could get an idea of the 22 professions for which higher education was required.
At the beginning of the 20th century, sociological surveys on the vocational guidance were conducted among high school students. Their task was to find out whether high school students were planning to go for further training and getting a profession and what was their motivation for it.
After the revolution, despite all the difficulties, the Soviet state did not abandon the question of professional guidance development. In 1920s since a State urgently needed qualified specialists the People's Commissariat of Labor, public education and healthcare agencies were actively engaged in it. With their help, a special Institute of Labor was created, where the professions were studied from the psychology point of view. In 1924, in Leningrad a Laboratory of professional counseling was founded. In the early 30-ies this system continued to develop rapidly, which led to further appearance of the professional consultants in the employment and vocational selection area. In schools, the teachers started engagement in the problems of the professional orientation of students. However, in the mid-30's the picture has changed: many pro-orientation techniques were fiercely criticized and declared "bourgeois." Some revival in this sphere came closer to the end of the 50's. In large cities, young people's career guidance offices appeared, employment centers were re-opened, but more than a twenty-year break in this area led to the fact that the previous achievements were lost, and there were practically no new ones. Only in the 1970s, thanks to the studies of psychologist Yevgeny Klimov, the vocational orientation in the USSR began to revive. In the 1980s, numerous centers for the professional orientation of young people were opened, supported by the Ministry of Labor and the Ministry of Education. At the present stage, the world of professions is becoming very mobile and unstable, some of the professions are disappearing, others are emerging, and the prestige or demand for professions in the labor market is also changing. In these conditions, schoolchildren need comprehensive information about professions, in a qualified council at the stage of choosing a profession, in supporting and assisting in the beginning of professional development.
Professional choice is the result of professional orientation, and this in turn is "a process of broad socio-cultural influence on the individual, designing and realizing his professional path, presupposes unity of government and self-management, external influences and self-knowledge" [1, p. 55].
In psychological sources, the age of high school students is defined as the age at which a person's personality is oriented toward the future. Prior to high school students, important and complex questions arise about the choice of a social, personal, professional path. Psychologists associate the transition from adolescence to adolescence with a sharp change in the life position, which consists in the fact that orientation toward the future becomes the main focus of the individual, and the question of choosing a profession is the focus of attention, interests, plans of students in the upper grades. Teenage and early age is characterized by an increase in self-awareness, a growing interest in one's own "I". Taking into account these circumstances is of fundamental importance in terms of vocational guidance of schoolchildren, since the ability to consciously and confidently choose a profession at this age is closely related to the image of "I" .
Senior students tend to choose the type of activity that would correspond to their understanding of their own capabilities. Since often the understanding of one's own abilities in schoolchildren is not adequate to the indicators, then failures are expected in the way of their choice. Objectively and fully evaluate themselves, high school students are not able to. In self-evaluation, they do not have a common tendency: some tend to overestimate themselves; others tend to overestimate themselves .
Professional self-determination is a psychological neoplasm of high school students, since it contains the most essential in the life of young men and women at this period of their lives. Interest in the construction of a future life, provoked by the external situation, which is the determining factor in the development of adolescence. Setting the choice of the future profession strengthens the reaction of internal processes of life, professional, personal self-determination connected with the revision of values, with the development of motives, goals, with an assessment of personal capabilities and achievements, and building plans for the future.
Value orientations are associated with personal meanings and the meaning of life in general . The acquisition of the meaning of life at this age leads to the formation of dominant motives, which subsequently translates meaningful values in some senses of activity and self-actualization in life . Professional self-determination in this context is seen as finding the meaning of life in the chosen profession, as well as finding meaning in the process of self-determination. The task of psychologists is to build together with the client a system of values and meanings that will help high school students determine their personal and professional preferences.
Value orientations are one of the leading factors in the professional self-determination of students in the upper grades. The choice of a profession is largely determined by the level of formation and a qualitative set of values. An important decision, choice of career path, high school student is taken early enough.
Most often, students make their choice intuitively, under the influence of the moment. After all, in order to choose a profession, it is necessary to understand the goals that you want to achieve in life, to have knowledge about yourself, about different professions taking into account your own moral beliefs. Value orientations of the personality characterize the content side of the direction; serve as a vital activity program, the basis for the embodiment of "one's own" personality model. From the value-semantic aspect of the psychological life of a senior student depends on the choice of his profession and a particular model of life.
In the course of studying the relationship between the motivational orientation of the personality and other factors that determine the professional self-determination of high school students, V.N. Kolyutsky and I. Yu. Kulagina  identified three types of orientation characteristic of modern adolescents: hedonistic (motivation for pleasure and entertainment), egocentric (Motives of achievement, fully aimed at their own interests) and spiritual and moral (the dominance of essential motives). The study revealed that on the border of adolescence and early adolescence, the issue of professional self-determination is differently resolved: the hedonistic orientation makes it difficult to choose a professional path, the egocentric one determines the choice of a profession on the basis of striving for prestige, power, material well-being, career growth; Spiritually-moral - leads to professional self-determination on the basis of vocation.
In order to form a value for the subject in relation to future professional activity, one should start working with the cognitive system: to reveal the world of professions for the schoolchildren, to give as much information as possible about the directions of professional education, to give concepts to schoolchildren about professions and specialties, skill levels . The development of the emotional and motivational sphere of the personality is the formation of interest in the future profession, which allows connecting knowledge with interest in the specialty and the need for it. Particularly difficult for penetration is the system of "deeds and deeds", which should manifest itself in concrete, purposeful actions in mastering the ways of choosing the future profession.
The main task of educational structures is the formation of a harmonious system of psychological and pedagogical support for the process of professional self-determination of schoolchildren.
It is important that at the time of choosing a profession, high school students possess a set of value representations peculiar to "personalities": focus on transformation, improvement of the environment; Positive and constructive attitude to life; Focus on the realization of their abilities and inclinations in the activity; Aspiration for mutual exchange of experience, knowledge and interests; Tolerant, understanding attitude towards others .
List of used literature:
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2. Klimov, E.A. Psychology of professional self-determination. Rostov-on-Don, publishing house "Phoenix", 1996.
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