/ 2. Social Philosophy
Dr. Sc., Professor Karabayeva A.G.,
Dr. Sc., Professor Ismagambetova Z.N.
Al-Faraby Kazakh National University,
Republic of Kazakhstan
The problem of social values in the context of social philosophy
The values of the social
sphere are manifested as a specific "internal" and
"external" reality. Values become
the direct motive and, at the same time, the condition of human activity. A
person in social philosophy is seen as a value being.
Values in social theory are revealed as a socio-psychological "foundation" of society and social life. Value characteristics, value properties and value orientations refer to the "concrete person". The phenomenon of "social values" suggests their socio-psychological interpretation. The social system cannot exist without its motivational basis in the form of social values.
Social values suggest personal attitude to the information about available social norms. The picture of social reality captures the characteristics and qualities of the subject of social-value reality and activity. Value is described as a wide range of social meanings. "Selected" social values are transformed into motives of orientations or into value orientations.
in the social conception is often seen as a social-value system. The nature and
essence of social values depends on the way of person existence
as value creature. Values are described as a socio-psychological
quality and the basis of life of
society as a system or integrity. The systemic social
crisis is correlated with the value crisis in society and
culture, and also in the personal sphere. The deficiency of value consciousness and
behavior indicates crisis in society, the disintegration of the system of
social relations and the prospects for changes and transformations in society.
"Value person", person in the context of value attitude, person in "regarding position", person as figure of assimilating of a "value "environment" is revealing as a subject of social and cultural communication. The "value subject" is characterized as a subject of social relations and cultural communication. The values of the subject are disclosed as a material of cultural interaction and as the construction of a social environment in all diversity and breadth of the space of human life and activity.
Social philosophy analyzes values as the most important parameter of social transformation and modernization. Values are also defined as important factor in the integration of society as well as in the functions of manifestation of identity at different levels and in the various spheres of human life. The society and its main spheres and institutions are viewed from the standpoint of the content, meaning and functions of social values and even corresponding motivational basis.
It is accepted to distinguish the categories "value" and "value orientation" in the system of value concepts. The category "value orientation" has a specific meaning. Concept reflects individual – personal – value relations and preferences as personal value and "individual" value "choice". The system of value orientations of the individual includes, along with the individual value preferences of person, in the same way the historically conditioned values of society.
Social values are necessarily manifested or identified as important parameter of personal relations, communication and motivational commencement for the individual and social groups. Social values are defined as the properties or characteristics of various social actors. The socio-value level of the organization of society reflects features of the corresponding socio-cultural model.
Actual analysis of values involves the consideration and assessment of formation of personal motivation and the attitude’s base. Modern society is analyzed as a socio-psychological reality and value sphere. Social psychology manifested great interest in the "non-value" nature of human behavior and activity as well as in characteristics of "non-value" mentality.
The differentiation of values attitudes and values orientations emphasizes the complexity and multi-level organization of values and value systems and the complexity and ambiguity of internalization and identification of values. Value attitudes of different levels combine and correlate in the social sphere. Social thought fixes multilevel and multi-factors of value consciousness and value behavior.
The most important part of social values is revealed as traditional values. The profound social transformation and transition of society and social systems are related to the transformation of the system of social values. The society and its groups may experience the crisis or deficiency of value consciousness and behavior. Contemporary social theory shows interest to the value sphere as a mental-moral complex and factor of unity and integrity of society and culture.
Models of "thoughtful", "selective" relations to norms occupy a special position in social theory. The concept of value as the full and, at the same time, the specific motive of human actions is maintained in contemporary theory. This concept gets a stable characteristic in social philosophy. Values and value attitudes exists not only in the form of objective social norms. Social philosophy considers social norms as appropriated by the individual. Social theory makes a distinction between social norms and values. The social norm is not always converted into value.
Contemporary social theory essentially prefers person as "assimilating" and "appropriating" of value content. Person forms and transforms the value orientation. The logic of value development, the value evolution of man and mankind are described as the appearance of the value of person or individual values. "Value person" will take the function of the subject in the system of formation and use of social norms and the relevant "regulatory" and "normative" elements, factors and structures.
E. Fromm reveals features of the translation of social values, the various general and significant values into the motivational base of personalities, regulators motives of personal behavior. E. Fromm focused on the difference between of the values-attitudes – "values – regulators" and attitudes - non-values or "non-value regulators" . Values are considered in philosophy mostly in close connection with the definition of the essence of man and his creativity. Values reflect a person's ability to create the world and to realize themselves on the basis of existing and assimilating values.
Values do not exist in the format of presentation. Values are not a sphere of "pure" reflection. Values are not verbal, conceptual expression of an ideal sense. The values are embodied in the behavior . Values constantly, consistently, everywhere are demonstrated, manifested, revealed, renovated and defined in terms of human behavior and actual activity. Human activity is impossible outside of valuable context. Values are expressed in practice. Values are revealed in the forms of practice and practical activity. Values promote the development of specific forms of cultural practice. Values are demonstrated through various forms of personal and social practices. Values are an important part of social communication. Development of social and cultural reality involves the relativization of values and value "content". Social reality is associated with transformation of value meanings and value consciousness. The values of modern society are characterized by the blurring of the value content of culture. Social conceptions define instability and dynamism of social values. Theory of values reflects interconnection of the subjective, social and cultural functions of values.
Value sphere can be represented as "intentional system", as the target-orientation activity, attitude positioning, regulatory practices as well as the sphere of needs, meanings and interests of the social actors. Values have a direct connection with social dynamics. Values construct prerequisites for the transformation of social experience. Values of contemporary society and culture reflect the diversity of meanings and functional aspects of the social phenomena and structures as well as social connections and relations.
1. Borisenko V.V. Nauka i rynochnye otnoshenija v informacionnom obshhestve: social"no-filosofskijj analiz. – M: Nauka, 2008