Author: Karimgozhina Elmira
Mendel University, Brno
Key aspects of the social partnership and its new features.
The complex issues of social partnership submits interest for a wide range of researchers - philosophers, sociologists, economists, political scientists, lawyers are finding new ways of this problem. Recently, the ideas of social partnership are interested corporate executives, representatives of government, who decide the practical issues of socio-economic development of governance. It can be argued that the surge of interest in social partnership in recent years due to several factors that are both epistemological and sociological nature.
The most important factor is the comparative epistemological novelty of this phenomenon, both for the national social science of science, and social practices. It is known that during the Soviet period, the category of social partnership was not subject to scientific analysis, because it contradicts the basic postulates of the theory of the class, was at odds with the official ideological doctrine. Social partnership in the sphere of work was denied, and is characterized as a phenomenon inherent in a capitalist type of public, above all, social and labor relations.
The main sociological factors that lead to an increasingly growing interest in the social partnership and its mechanisms, laws and principles of operation, should be attributed, primarily, those arising from the transformation objective phenomena, which are becoming a reality of modern society. It is about increasing degree of self-organization of local communities, the emergence and development of so-called. the third sector - non-profit organizations using the technology of social partnership in the practice of interaction with government, business sector, etc., as well as reaching out to the tools of social partnership bodies themselves, seeking to enlist the support of the population.
Social partnership, stepping beyond the sphere of labor, surely fits into the relations between various social actors, groups and communities. Increasingly, social partnership serves as a tool for strategic planning, comprehensive development of territorial communities, playing an important and sometimes decisive role in management decisions. The idea of social partnership has received the support and evolvement of the Strategy of industrial-innovative development until 2015.
However, in recent years, we can speak of social partnership and in a broader context. Social partnership plays an important role in ensuring political stability, the formation of new civilized human relations, identifies trends in the global social development.
All this means the need for deeper analysis, serious thinking about the phenomenon of social partnership on the basis of an interdisciplinary approach, using the categorical apparatus and methodology of research adopted in the various disciplines of applied economics and sociology to philosophy and politics. In this paper we attempt to examine the basic concepts of social partnership, to reveal its integrative nature, identify key essential characteristics.
Analysis of social partnership, its attributes, mechanisms, principles, properties, we start with the basic ordering of interpretations of this category found in the literature and the various regulatory documents.
The study scientific accumulated backlog in the analyzed domain shows a significant variety of interpretations of social partnership, due to both differences in disciplinary approaches, from the position which it considered, and the depth of scientific analysis of the phenomenon. It is possible to identify the scope and variety of social partnership, and its essential characteristics. This suggests that considered the phenomenon has a complex nature; it is a versatile, poly - subjective, which manifests themselves in different spheres of social life.
First of all, we should note that in the scientific literature and regulatory documents used not one but usually several reasons for the interpretation of social partnership. Thus, the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan  defines social partnership as a "system of relationships between employees (employee representatives), employers (representatives of employers), public authorities, local authorities, aimed at ensuring the coordination of interests of workers and employers on labor relations and other directly connected to them. "As a document regulating relations between individuals primarily in the social and labor, the labor code limits the number of media interest, which is the subject of harmonization of social partnership, workers and employers. The authorities are in it only as an intermediary between the two main subjects of interest.
Thus, the analysis of object and subject fields of social partnership, as reflected in regional regulations, shows that in reality the number of subjects such partnerships as vehicles of relatively independent interests is wider than just the workers and employers. The list of objects of social partnership, outlined in these regulations, includes the interests of different social classes, the subjects of management, and economic management.
Similar conclusions can be made in the analysis of scientific publications devoted to the problems of social partnership. Thus, social partnership is characterized as "a civilized form of public relations in social and labor sphere, providing the coordination and protection of the interests of workers, employers (employers), public authorities, local self-government through treaties, agreements and aspirations of reaching a consensus, compromise on key areas of social economic and political development ".
In this definition it is necessary to pay attention primarily to the fact that public authorities and local self-government for the first time explicitly identified not only as an intermediary between workers and employers, but also as independent subjects of interest in the interaction. In this case, V.A. Mikheev defines public authorities and local self-government as carriers of special interests, other than the interests of workers and employers, and at the same time. Second, what is interesting in this definition, it is a significant expansion of the object field of this phenomenon. V.A. Mikheev classifies the full range of socio-economic and political development of society to the subject of social partnership, thus spreading the effects of this phenomenon is also well beyond the mere scope of employment.
In recent years, quite common in our country has the concept of "cross-sectoral social partnership" . This concept sees as the three main subjects of the partnership sector of society - government, business and nonprofit organizations, as well as the subject of partnership - the whole range of social problems. "Inter-sectoral social partnership - a constructive cooperation organizations of the two or three sectors (government, business, non-profit sector) in addressing social problems, providing a synergistic effect of the" addition "of different resources and" advantageous "for each of the parties and the population"  .
As you can see, even a cursory review of the definitions of social partnership shows that the authors, first, consider this category in relation to different spheres of life of society, and secondly, identify different aspects of the most meaningful categories. This circumstance makes it necessary to release not one but several initial reasons for ordering and typology of existing interpretations of social partnership.
The first major study of definitions systematizing base category is the disciplinary affiliation of each. On this basis can be identified, conditionally speaking, philosophical, sociological, economic, political and other interpretations of the social partnership.
The philosophical approach sees social partnership relations through the prism of social and state in terms of "progress", "public relations", "solidarity", "objective needs", etc. An example is the following definition: social partnership - "a specific type of social relations between social groups, layers, classes and communities. This is the process of creating a single socio-cultural space, which is inhabited by different actors who agree, despite the difference in interest of the general “rules of the game”, “partnership rules”.
The sociological approach is to analyze, first of all, the socio-structural components, functional and socio-cultural features of this phenomenon. One of sociology's definition of social partnership can be considered as the definition given by V.A. Mikheev, "Social partnership - is a system of relations of its main actors and institutions at the situation, conditions, contents and activities of the various socio-professional groups, communities, layers . The authors of the other works -"Social Partnership. Notes on the formation of civil society in Russia "- interpret social partnership as a" social action, based on a sense of human solidarity and shared responsibility for the problem ".
Researchers, which are analyzing the political aspects of social development, democratization, treated the social partnership as a political institution, noting the role that it plays in ensuring political stability in society, implementation and coordination of the political interests of various social strata of the population. In this context, social partnership is treated as an institution, which provides "the granting of the rights to various social groups, sectors, to participate in political and economic processes of production and decision-making on important issues of social development" . It is noted that the "social partnership ... are inextricably linked, mutual functional dependence in its functioning of political institutions and political processes" .
The second bases for the systematization of interpretations of social partnership are the scope, coverage, coverage of social partnership. In the scientific literature found in this regard, two opposing superposition. Proponents of the first approach consider social partnership as the interaction of the whole society. Conditionally speaking, this is the mode of existence of society, all its individuals, strata and social groups. Social partnership, respectively, this is a condition for sustainable development of society. With this approach, the field of action of this phenomenon is all the social space. Other authors restrict how the range of subjects of social partnership, and the time period of this phenomenon, as well as conditions of its objectification. Most modern writers distinguish in this context, two main models of social partnership - the so-called trade-unionist and cross-sectoral. At the same time under the trade union model is a system of "tri-partisanship system", developed in the social and labor (the ratio of employers, employees and the state), and cross-sector, which we discussed above, called the model of interaction between the three sectors of society: government (state) business and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Most definitely, this position is expressed by V.M. Yakimtsov, noting that "today the notion of" social partnership "conceals two overlapping but not identical, but in some cases contradictory context. One of the problems associated with conflict resolution in labor relations (trade unionist), and the second - larger - with the development of cross-sectoral interactions in the social field ".
An illustration of the first approach can be considered as a definition of social partnership, which uses in his thesis Gainullina FI: "Social partnership - is the ratio between the major social groups in society in the implementation of certain social order built on the opportunities and the need to integrate and promote the interests of the parties by consent and understanding ".
An illustration of the first approach can be considered a definition of social partnership, which is used in thesis of Gainullina F.I.: "Social partnership - is the ratio between the major social groups in society in the implementation of certain social order built on the opportunities and the need to integrate and promote the interests of the parties by consent and understanding ".
Proponents of the second approach, identify the various limited scope of social partnership, considering it as a special technology of interaction of social actors in order to implement specific interests. Different authors identify areas such objectification of social partnership, as "urban agriculture and land use planning", "the labor market and employment", "vocational education and training", "ecology and environment", etc.
The criteria for objectification of social partnership, most supporters of the second campaign is considered, first, the institutional character of the parties entering into a partnership, and secondly, the degree of maturity, self-organization, influence of these parties. Social partnership in this paradigm is a partnership of social institutions, organizational structures, rather than abstract social groups and strata of society. In particular, when it comes to labor issues, we talk about partnership unions of employers, workers, government institutions, etc., cross-sector partnership is seen as the interaction between governments, NGOs, the business community.
The subject of scientific discourse in the context of social partnership is an assessment of conditions and prerequisites of objectification of the phenomenon. Some authors relate the development of social partnership exclusively with market economies. "Social partnership - a special type of social-labor relations inherent in a market society, which provides an optimal balance the interests of the optimum implementation of various social groups, first of all employees and employers. In other words, the uprising condition of social partnership is the emergence of private ownership of means of production, dividing society into employers (owners) and employees.
The third important reason systematic definition of social partnership is subjective, object and subject characteristics of this phenomenon. On this basis in the scientific literature there are two basic positions of researchers.
From the perspective of the first group of authors and subjects of social partnership are the social peer groups, social strata. In this postulated two-fold. First, the subjects of social partnership - are not separate individuals, and groups of people. Second, individuals belonging to these groups are aware of a number of features of their social identity, which owe their cohesion within the group and distinguish them from other groups of individuals. Typically, this social identity reinforced by common interests, needs or values.
The second approach is that, as a partner is not considered social groups or strata, and it is the institutions representing the interests of these groups. Refers to the institutions of government, civil society, etc. V.A. Mikheev wrote - "Social Partnership” is a form of interaction between state institutions and civil society”.
To summarize the main systematic interpretations of the category of social partnership, we can make the following conclusions. First, the interpretation of the social partnership characterized by considerable diversity, which is due to a difference of disciplinary approaches, which are considered from the standpoint of this phenomenon, and the scope of the phenomenon and, consequently, its subjective and object characteristics. The essence of the main interpretations of social partnership is reduced to the representation of it as a system of interaction between different social actors, ensuring the coordination and implementation of the interests of these entities.
Second, there are two main principle approaches to the treatment of social partnership. The first approach, which can be described as conceptual, social partnership is a relationship between different social strata and groups throughout society. The second approach, which can be roughly being called instrumental, examines social partnership as the technology of interaction between social actors within specific spheres of life: social work, employment and labor market, social services, etc.
Third, all the researchers state the growing influence of this phenomenon on various aspects of social life, postulated the importance of building social partnership in solving practical problems of social development management, development and implementation of socio-economic policy.
Having determined, therefore, common approaches to the definition of social partnership, now we consider briefly the genesis of this phenomenon, the theoretical stages of the synthesis of the concept of social partnership. At the same time as a methodological tool we use Weber's ideal-typical approach that allows abstracting from the historical models of the real state of social partnership, and will consider only the theoretical expression (basic constructs) of this phenomenon.
With this approach, the genesis of social partnership is presented as a sequential change in different socio-philosophical, socio-economic paradigms, theoretical synthesis of the ideas.
The first stage of the synthesis of ideas of social partnership refers to the ancient period and is associated with the names of Plato and Aristotle. The establishment of the Athenian polis marked the first appearance of structurally organized communities. Plato, guided by this policy, and displaying a model of an "ideal state", he stressed the key difference of course the natural state of society, which was dominated by the cult of power and the struggle of all against all. This difference is the new social order, which became the ideal harmony of the relations of equal and free citizens, sharing an open and rational discussion and resolution of problems . Aristotle even more did the emphasis on the fact that "the whole can be happy unless all the parts feel as such," and that "the goal of human society is not to live but to live happily multiplying virtue beauty and wisdom ".
It is these ancient ideas of solidarity of citizens as equal and free individuals were the first synthesis of ideas of social partnership. It is based on the idea of "natural civil society" came to replace the model of "natural state of nature."
The second stage of the synthesis of ideas of social partnership has on the XVI-XVII centuries and the first half of XVIII century. During this period there is a growing syncretism of society and state, the growth of the internal contradictions of feudalism as a social formation. Social partnership is the essence of the idea of "social contract", developed by the thinkers of the era of the French enlightenment, and then the representatives of German sociology.
One of the first theoretical justifications for social partnership in the form of the establishment of certain rules of social coexistence, the so-called the social contract, made materialist philosopher Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes showed that the nature of people causes them to constantly striving for power, privilege, life benefits. Therefore, in order to prevent chaos, or, in modern language, social conflict, it is necessary to conclude the "social contract", the adoption of rules that people agree to adhere. The idea of "social contract" has found its development in the writings of John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, P. Holbach, D. Diderot, Ch. Montesquieu and other thinkers of the French enlightenment. So, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the theorist of "social contract", believed that such an agreement may refer the relationship between people in the mainstream of general agreement and peace.
In classical German philosophy, the idea of social partnership defended G. Leibniz, who is also considered that the state of peace and harmony between people should be achieved on the basis of the contract and social compromise.
Thus, the second synthesis of the concept of social partnership was in line with the establishment and development of theoretical constructs models of the natural law of society.
The third stage of the synthesis of ideas of social partnership begins at the end of the XVIII century and ends around the beginning of the XX century. In public practice, this period of increasing government's role in the regulation of social processes, complicating the structure of the stratification of society. In theoretical terms, this period marked the emergence and growing influence of rationalist ideas and concepts, which focus on are the issues of social interaction.
This stage of the synthesis of ideas of social partnership is associated with the names of Adam Smith, Kant, Hegel, Comte, and later Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber. Despite the opposition of theoretical approaches, and ideological and political paradigms, all of them, each with their positions, have made a significant contribution to the construction of a rationalistic model of social partnership. At this stage the problem of reconciling the interests of social groups are actively developed in the writings of Robert Owen, A. Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, L. Blanca. Constructing an ideal society, they argued the need to align the interests of public relations.
An important contribution to the development of the concept of social partnership has made Comte and Emile Durkheim. In his study, "The social division of labor" Durkheim showed how material factors and ideas can bring together social groups with opposing interests, but in a state of interdependence in the social division of labor force. Lack of understanding between the classes, unresolved relationships, including the lack of a developed professional corporatism, Durkheim considered a deviation from the norm, and social pathology. The fundamental importance for rationalistic understanding of the phenomenon of social partnership was the work of Max Weber. They laid the foundation for the development of one of the key areas of modern sociology - structural functionalism. Analyzing ideas, social norms and values as a reflection of economic factors, Weber saw in them a force that can seriously impact on the economy and on social development in general. In Russia at that time the idea of social partnership working developed area V. Bervy-Flerovsky, N.H. Bunge, P.B. Struve, V.P. Litvinov-Falinsky, M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky and others.
In general, the content of the third stage of the synthesis of the concept of social partnership was this transferred model of social interaction from the category of ideal structures in the sphere of social reality. The questions of social partnership are, in fact, one of the main subjects to develop new philosophical doctrines clash of ideological and political paradigms of scientific knowledge about the laws of social development.
The fourth stage of the synthesis of ideas of social partnership was unfolded from the middle of the XX century. with the advent of new theories of social development: the "industrial society", "post-industrial society", "civilization approach", "postmodernism" and others. Social partnership came to be regarded as an instrument of civil society, as a new system of civilized social relations that lead to the formation of the welfare state. This stage of development of the concept of social partnership is connected with the ideas of Daniel Bell, A. Touraine, W. Beck, J. Habermas, P. Anderson, A. Seligman, R. Inglehart and other researchers have proposed various theories of civil society and the transformation of modern civilization.
Noting the emergence of new theories of modern societies, in varying degrees based on the ideas of social partnership, it should be noted that the basis for many of them are the concepts of the theory of social action, brilliantly developed by T. Parsons. The consensus, balance, harmony is the most important signs of the normal state of the system in the Parsons’ theory. It is these categories are the backbone for social partnership as a way to escort the society from social conflict and shock.
The most important contribution to understand the nature of social partnership, especially as a communicative phenomenon and activity, help the concepts of modern social science theorists: Bourdieu, Giddens, Niklas Luhmann, Jürgen Habermas, etc. The analysis of social partnership in terms of "communicative rationality" J. Habermas' “inter-subjective discourse”, E. Giddens, from the standpoint of the theory of social fields, Bourdieu, the general theory of social systems, N. Luhmann expands the idea of social partnership as an integrative social phenomenon constituted, to a certain extent, not only social communication and interaction but the very societal fabric of society.
Since the late 80s of XX century the concept of social partnership has been actively developed in our country. First, as a mechanism to solve labor disputes, and in recent years - more and more as the technology of cross-sectoral collaboration, the concept has become one of the leading themes of research and public discourse.
So, we have determined that social partnership is a complex, poly-subject, socio-cultural phenomenon of social life, due to the presence, activity and interaction of social actors, which have certain value orientations, and perform certain social roles. We will provide socio-cultural analysis of social partnership by using modus approach, examining the phenomenon from different angles, for which the foundation will provide a different set of its attribute properties, reflecting a particular qualitative aspect of this phenomenon.
Relating to the analysis of the integration of social partnership "structural" and "the activity" approach is to use an interconnected and interdependent analysis of this phenomenon, both in terms of its structure in the form of stable, repetitive relationship of social actors, behaviors, and the terms of the types of social action in within these relationships.
We believe that the subject-object decomposition of social partnership as a social action must distinguish the following four primitive features:
1) the subject of the action (social groups and individuals);
2) the object of the action and its structural elements (behaviors and thinking of the social partners: their attitudes, interests, values, norms);
3) the process of social action as a set of operations and procedures impact on the social partners;
4) the situational context in which social action unfolds.
Externally-oriented social action in the social partnership includes:
- selection of the social partners to implement the subsequent interaction (analysis of the subjective field of social partnership, the choice of relevant social actors, etc.);
- identification of the social partners, the basic social characteristics (the structure of social actors, their normative system of values, motivation, goal setting, role function, etc.)
- representation of their interests, values, roles and functions, etc.;
- system integration of situational conditions (understanding of the process, the conditions and factors affecting the social partners and the upcoming interaction with them).
Internally-oriented social action in the social partnership includes:
- self-organization of the social partners (regulation its own internal ordering of social actors and adapt to changing conditions);
- self-reference (evaluation and critical reflection of its own interests, value systems, attitudes, willingness to compromise);
- self-identification (evaluation and critical reflection of its own social status or social roles);
- adaptation (the intended effect of the social partners on the content and methods of its own activities in order to adapt to conditions).
The central element of social action is the interaction between social actors. Interaction implies the existence of such attributes as status or position, which occupy the participants of interaction corresponding to these positions of status and role expectations, and the resulting status and role expectations prescribed by the regulatory patterns of behavior (role), performed by actors (Resnick, 1998: 311).
From this point of view, the social partnership is presented as a one-sided or multilateral-oriented subject-subject relationship, deterministic social status or normative value regulatory. What are the main properties of the interaction within the social partnership?
First, the interaction in the social partnership is a consensus-oriented communication, i.e., suggesting the achievement of goals and the realization of interests of social actors through a convergence of views and agreement, without any pressure from one of the subjects of the partnership. This property may also be called "conventionality" of social partnership. Trying to weaken the property conventionality, one of the social partners immediately leads to the destruction of the structure of interaction and transfers it into a phase of confrontation. An example is the mass protests of pensioners and beneficiaries during the realization period of the famous law on the "monetization of reduced payment". In fact, we have witnessed a violation of the power implicit contract, "convention" with these categories of people to maintain their "status quo" in the distribution of benefits - despite the fact that for the great mass of beneficiaries the implementation of the law was ultimately beneficial economically.
The second most important feature of interaction in the social partnership is sustainability. By stability we mean the maintenance and reproduction of social subjects of the same type, which other social partners recognize patterns of behavior. Stability is provided by the orientation of the partnership subjects on the shared cultural images (plans, goals, values, norms), as well as their respective instrumental categories (tools and procedures to achieve the objectives, terms of implementation plans, etc.).
An extremely important feature of social partnership is inter-subjectivity as security procedures of the free exchange of ideas, representation of their own free legal and value systems, etc. Inter-subjectivity of social partnership is a projection of the independence and autonomy of social factors involved in the interaction.
The last property is reflexivity. Reflexivity - the inalienable and permanent property of the social partnership is manifested due to the need and ability of social actors to carry out activities in the process of evaluating the interaction. Assessment to be their own intrinsic characteristics and features of other social partners, conditions and procedures for interaction, available options and mechanisms for the purposes of adjusting the goals of the interaction.
The basis of the attribute structuration of social interaction in social partnership, we set the conceptual framework of social and cultural interaction of P. Sorokin released in its three integrated components: thinking, acting and reacting people; importance, norms and values by which the interaction is carried out; open action and material artifacts, by which objectified and socialized intangible importance, norms and values. Adapting the scheme of P. Sorokin to the conditions of social partnership, we postulate the following attribute components of the social partnership as the interaction of social actors:
- the actual social actors, which interact (individuals, social groups, social and professional groups, etc.);
- inter-subjective communication, projecting a reflection of cultural patterns, interests and needs of social actors;
- infrastructure of interaction as a set of conditions, mechanisms and procedures of interaction.
Interaction between the social partners is carried out as cooperation in several areas: motivation (interests), value (normative value system), empathic (perceptual images of the social partners), meaning, role and institutional .
Thus, the current practice confirms the theoretical concepts of social anthropology, considering the culture in two ways: as a result of the joint activities of people, a set of achievements, contributing to the development of society, and as a set of models, ways of life of individuals, social groups, corresponding to the notions of conventional behavior. That is what we observe in the social partnership. On the one hand, culture is seen as a product of self-development of the social partners (social structures), on the other hand, is an instrument of cultural selection of samples, models, and rejection of unacceptable activities of these partners.
Thus, we can identify the next set of socio-cultural mechanisms of social partnership:
- individual and group socialization;
- enculturation of the social partners;
- social integration of the social partners;
- socio-cultural regulation.
In such a case of the duality of the culture nature, mentioned above, we can postulate a simultaneous and well-directed action of social and cultural mechanisms of social partnership of two vectors.
One vector is directed at the development of a common culture of social interaction, forging new civic values, access to new quality of relations between different social actors (externalities effect). The second vector - is the impact of socio-cultural mechanisms for the social partners themselves, their dominant values, the transformation of legal systems of social actors, the development of social structures (internality effect).
Summing up a brief analysis of the social partnership as a socio-cultural phenomenon, we can formulate the following thesis. Integrative social partnership as a socio-cultural phenomenon lies in its dual nature. On the one hand, the social partnership - it is always the product, the result of cross-cultural exchange and cultural social life. The relationships of social partnership are determined by the culture of the interacting parties, subject to it. On the other hand, the social partnership, the process of social relations between actors is a means of forming, maintaining and developing culture.
In general, however, seems we are only at the beginning of a long journey of scientific understanding and practical development of social partnership as a special integrative phenomenon, the results of which greatly enrich our theoretical knowledge and practice of social management .
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Статья посвящена анализу социокультурных аспектов социального партнерства. Рассматриваются этапы теоретического синтеза концепции социального партнерства как эволюции идей солидарности, согласия, «общественного договора».
This article analyzes the socio-cultural aspects of social partnership. It considers the stages of the synthesis of the theoretical concept of social partnership as the evolution of ideas of solidarity, compliance, and "social contract".