География и геология / 4. биогеография, биоресурсоведение, биоразнообразие
Chemeris I.A, Bilyk L.I., Ryga T.M.
Technological University, Ukraine
Integrated natural monument «Tyasmynsky Canyon»
(Ukraine, Cherkassy region)
Natural monuments – this
is some unique natural formations that have special environmental, scientific
value. Cherkassy region has 186 natural
monuments, including 7 – state value, which is 2,4 % of the natural reserve fund.
The complex nature monument of local importance «Tyasmynskyi Canyon» was officially declared to be protected areas as for DEC Decision of 05.13.1975, the total area of 1,4 ha. Memo nature obeys Kamensky State Historical and Cultural Reserve and buffer zone is Tyasmynskу interregional corridors. It has a floral and landscape value.
Tyasmynskyy Canyon is a unique natural geokomplex. Along the Tyasmin located within Tsentralnoprydniprovskiy highland region (right bank Cherkassy region, Kamensky district, the central part of the Kamenka). Canyon represents perehlyatsionalnu form Dnieper glaciation in Ukraine. The landscape of the steppe, riverside vegetation, a granite outcrop – are one of the oldest geological structures of the Earth – Ukrainian Shield.
There are several theories about the formation of the canyon. For the first
version Tyasmin basin was covered by the former Dnieper glacier. Perhaps, the
main hydrological basin and the grid resulted from the retreat of glaciers in
the Late Paleolithic (40-13 thousand years ago). Melting glaciers caused the
emergence of many streams - Tyasmyn tributaries (which, in particular,
indicates the very territory over dissected ravine and gully geokomplex that formed
the undulating topography).
According to another hypothesis Tyasmynsky Canyon was the result of geological and tectonic processes, the result of which was the entrance to the ground granitic rocks. It is known that about 2 billion years ago right bank of the Middle Dnieper covered with very high folded mountains. The influence of external factors (climatic conditions, weathering, and erosion) destroyed them in the coming geo-epoch. At the remnants of these mountains, in particular, indicates the presence of hard crystalline rocks in the ravines, gorges and valleys.
On the left bank of the Tyasmin cliffs rise up to 12-15 meters. Rock densely youngsters with maple Acer tataricum L., Acer negundo L., Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Sambucus nigra L.. It spread regionally rare for Cherkassy ferns – Asplenium trichomanes L., Asplenium ruta-muraria L., Polypodium vulgare L., Cystopteris filix-fragilis .
The greatest scientific value Tyasmynskoho canyon are mosses (briofy). Bryophyte flora canyon represented 54 species of mosses, 7 of which belong to the hepatic mosses. With rare moss species xerophytes scientists distinguish Entosthodon hungaricus (Boros) Loeske, which has a limited area of distribution in Europe and slaty paste mosses [1,3]. It contains a set of relict moss that remained here since glacial times, including Hennediella heimii (Hedw.) RH Zander, Tortula randii (Kenn.) RH Zander, Canardia compacta (Drumm. ex . Mull. Hal) H. Rob., which are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, Red Book European briofitiv. It is known that the location Desmatodon ucrainicus Lazar. The only one in Ukraine [1,2,3 ].
In areas of the canyon, where the steppe ecosystem dominated by fescue – feather groups that survived in fragments. There are growing rare and endangered species of plants in the Cherkasy region – Iris hungarica Waldst. Et Kit., Stipa capillata L., which are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine .
Arrays plains with gentle slopes covered with abundant granite outcrops fescue and sockets Sempervivum ruthenicum. This grouping also increasing characteristic rocky steppes plants – Allium podolicum (Aschers. Et Graebn) Blocki ex, Aurinia saxatilis, Thymus dimorphus Klok. Et Shost. and others. Filled humus crack rocks induct Poa angustifolia L., and from the shrubs – Cotoneaster melanocarpus Fisch. Ex Blytt.
Riverside vegetation consists mainly of conventional formations Phragmites communis Trin. and Typha angustifolia L, T. Latifolia L. This common grouping Nyphar (L.) Smith, who are listed in the Green Book of Ukraine. As part of the stand there Sparganium emersum Rehm, Iris pseudacorus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Galium palustre L. and others.
Diverse vertebrate fauna of the canyon, some of them rare species included
in the Red Book of Ukraine (*). In particular, a common bird Ardea alba L., A. cinerea Fulica, Anas
platyrhynchos, Acrocephalus, Motacilla flava Linnaeus, from reptiles – * tortoise green Warbler, (Lacerta viridis Laur., L. agilis) water
serpent, plain, (Natrix tessellate Laur,
N. natrix) bog turtle (Emys orbicularis. From amphibians – frog lake, pond,
(Rana ridibunda, R. Lessonae). With
mammals – * river otter (Lutra lutra L.),
beaver river (Castor fiber), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).
Historical and geological value in the canyon has a geological monument of nature «Rock O. Pushkin» (1,0 hectares) – is located in the midst, the Tyasmin, represents the pink granite outcrop Kirovogradskiy complex – Proterozoic.
Integrated natural monument «Tyasmynskyy Canyon» is at the crossroads of Galicia-Slobozhansky steppe and Tyasmynskу interregional corridors, serves as a buffer zone provides a unique preservation of rare species of mosses and vascular plants of another ice age landscape geokomplex particular river valley-steppe, ravine and gully and others, and is a destination for tourists.
According to the development of regional ecological network Cherkassy area
supposed to increase the area of natural monuments «Tyasmynskoho canyon» to 10 hectares of conferring it the status of national importance.
2. Червона Книга України. Рослинний світ /за ред. Я. П. Дідуха – К.: Глобалконсалтинг, 2009. – 900 с.
3. Єфремцева А.П. Перші бріологічні дослідження Тясминського каньйону в околицях м. Кам’янки Черкаської області /А.П. Єфремцева //Чигиринщина: історія і сьогодення. – Черкаси, 2008. – С.48 – 54.