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Medvedeva E. V.
Ph.D. in economics
Accounting, economic analysis and audit sub-faculty Associate professor, The Povolzhskiy Technological University of Services

 

 

CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES OF PROVISION OF A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE of a services sector AS MANAGING SUBJECT OF ECONOMY OF REGION

 

 

 

Services sector development in Russia gained the specifics against proceeding transformatsionny processes in a national economy. While at a boundary of the end of XX and the beginning of the XXI centuries the most developed countries of the world all more build principles of functioning of the economic complexes in the coordinate plane of the prevailing sphere of non-material production, in Russia this trend only arises. So, in Russia the role industrially productions in economy is rather high. In particular, the industry first of all extracting, builds a basis of an economic complex which, finally, and sets the directions of development of manufacturing industry and a services sector, and not the reverse, as in the developed countries. The similar state of affairs, though is natural, nevertheless, it is inverted in relation to production in the developed countries of the world. And here it is necessary to consider that the ustoychivy, the sphere of production of goods is more perfect and more effective, the society and the person is richer, and the services sector role, its balanced combination to the sphere of production of goods and return influence on it becomes that znachimy.

 

At all stages of development of economy as the main link the enterprise which in system of the economic relations is understood as the managing subject of economy acts.

For successful development of the region it is necessary for enterprise to pass from the adaptation and survival concept to model of a sustainable development. Development at the enterprise of strategy of transition to a way of a sustainable development with system of the purposes, indicators and mechanisms of realization gets especially importance and for the region as a whole.

It is connected with that new economic realities put in the forefront problems of a sustainable development of the enterprise and its ability to resist to adverse situations that causes of ensuring reliability of each separate enterprise. Practice shows that problems existing today can't be solved without formation of the mechanism providing a sustainable development of the enterprise.

Depending on influence of environment, internal factors, strategic tasks, the current specific features of the enterprise the mechanism of a sustainable development can include a set of various elements: organizational and administrative, technological, marketing, financial, investment etc., considered in various aspects. When developing the mechanism of a sustainable development of the enterprise it is necessary to pay attention to need of the considered, weighed and qualified production management, and also on development and realization of foreign and domestic, competitive policy of the enterprise.

The mechanism of business management can be realized only within a control system which provides the solution of arising problems of the enterprise. The device of the mechanism of management depends on character of the problems which are subject to permission.

With a view of formation of the mechanism of a sustainable development of the enterprise the assessment of activity of the enterprise, identification of tendencies of its development, dynamics of the main indicators of functioning of the enterprises is necessary. Results of the researches carried out by us give the chance to formulate the list of solved tasks, to reveal the directions of increase of stability of development of the enterprises and to develop the mechanism of a sustainable development of the enterprise.

Research of possibilities for achievement of a sustainable development of the enterprise is carried out on the basis of an all-round assessment of its current state. As object of research we considered the enterprises of the Samara region.

The current state and development of the industrial enterprises is characterized by existence of complex production and administrative problems. Weakening of a role of the state as guarantor of stability of development, violation of production and economic, economic and financial communications with consumers and suppliers, technological backwardness of many productions, an unstable financial position of the majority of the enterprises - all this provokes high level of uncertainty and instability of operating conditions that creates real threat to positions of the enterprises in the market. As a result of it the majority of the enterprises of a services sector unable is high-grade to use the production capabilities, reducing often own work to fight for a survival instead of steady functioning.

The analysis of a current state of economy shows that market conditions put in the forefront problems of a sustainable development of the enterprise. Problems existing today can't be solved without formation of the mechanism providing a sustainable development of the enterprise. At the heart of such mechanism there should be a stability of the enterprise which is provided at the expense of the deep transformatsionny processes lifting economic relationship on a new stage of development, allocating with their new qualitative content and doing them more viable and effective. The purposes, the priorities moving motives, the economic relations, forms of their manifestation, behavior of managing subjects, their communications thus change. It means that the enterprise enters a new condition, in a new stage of public reproduction which is characterized by an interlacing of the communications answering to balanced and effective development of economic system; in other words, enters a certain structural and organizational optimum of the economic system, which essence - a special form of implementation of the vosproizvodstvenny process, differing qualitatively new level of proportionality and equation [1].

As economic event stability of the enterprise represents a certain period of process of the public reproduction, meaning steady implementation of reproduction of economic subjects and their economic relations. In a steady condition managing subjects most fully realize the interests on all types of the markets and in this regard receive favorable possibilities of implementation and reproduction of the main types of activity. As a social and economic form of stability of the enterprise the vosproizvodstvenny relations which material basis is the income act.

The Vosproizvodstvenny approach allows to determine specifics of stability of the enterprise as the stage, being characterized by such subordinatsionny dependence and such interlacing of economic communications which answer the balanced and effective development of economic system. It represents a certain structural and organizational optimum of economic system. According to a vosproizvodstvenny approach it is possible to determine stability as a special form of implementation of the reproduction, differing by qualitatively new level of proportionality and equation of economic processes. The mechanism of realization of this form represents interaction of the factors forming or breaking stable equilibrium that gives the chance to provide necessary degree of flexibility and constancy, adaptability and survival rate. Organizing economic system, this mechanism provides first of all its equation. As I.Mayburov notes, without equation of all parts and elements of system of production there can not be a steady process of a social production, its reproduction. Laws of equation and imbalance have the consequence obligatory and important conditions of stability and instability, their change the friend the friend, their antagonism that forms constancy and at the same time dynamism, long duration of a condition of stability [3].

It is possible to allocate one more characteristic of economic stability which is connected with a systematic obnovlyaemost of production and readiness for a production diversification.

Besides, economic and financial instability of the Russian economy puts forward very important problem of development of conceptual provisions and practical tools of providing a sustainable development of the enterprise. It is connected with that round the enterprise production and vosproizvodstvenny processes concentrate, productive forces, material and financial resources are integrated, new relations of production are reproduced and created. The enterprise as rather independent, complete and steady organism, serves as a strukturoobrazuyushchy element of economy and society.

It is known that in the course of production economic activity the enterprise is influenced by a set of the factors representing danger to capacity of the enterprise as bases of its activity and possibilities. Therefore stability of the enterprise should be considered as the difficult social and economic and organizational and technical system consisting of interconnected elements (levels) which feature is the unity of all components of fields of activity of the enterprise of a services sector.

This feature follows from this that essentially new relations of production operating in the conditions of market economy, constant variability of external and internal environments of functioning of the enterprise cause need to each enterprise not only independently to carry out the actions, but also completely to be responsible for their results. In these conditions stability of the enterprise is defined the same as reliability of its economic activity. Thus the assessment of level of stability of the enterprise not only shows level of use of resources of the enterprise, but also gives the chance to define available reserves and to develop the main directions on their effective application.

Development at level of the enterprise of strategy of transition to a way of a sustainable development with system of the purposes, indicators and mechanisms of realization gains special importance for economy as a whole.

The foregoing is connected with that the modern period of world production and economic development is characterized by considerable exasperation of competitive fight. It negatively affects competitiveness and stability of functioning of the domestic enterprises. In this regard, absolute importance get not only questions of development of the modern rynochno focused methods of planning, management, the organization and control of production and economical activity, but also development of new concepts, approaches, methodologies to the strategic analysis and management of economic stability of the enterprise in the conditions of risk and uncertainty. It is connected with that the modern enterprises the main objective put receiving profit and increase in market capitalization as a major factor of ensuring competitiveness. Therefore concerning the enterprises it is necessary to speak about a sustainable development. The essence of a sustainable development of the enterprise consists in that in the long period of time high indicators of social, economic and ecological development were provided.

The sustainable development of the enterprise of a services sector can be considered as some kind of compensatory mechanism allowing the enterprise it is not simple to adapt for destabilizing influence internal and environment, but also steadily to develop. The stability of development of the enterprise is higher, the it is less risk of a possible deviation from expected result and on the contrary [2].

As show results of researches, activity of subjects of the material sphere in present conditions, in big degree, is defined by the changes occurring in environment. This approach started to be used recently for characteristics of those factors of direct and indirect influence which influence enterprise functions. It is possible to refer emergence and sharp increase of number of essentially new tasks, unpredictability of conditions and increase of rates of instability, probability of emergence of strategic surprises to them.

Reliable basis of a survival of the enterprise in difficult environmental conditions is elaboration of the strategy focused not on existing conditions, and on what else it is necessary to develop. It is a question of the characteristic of economic stability as development mode. In this case, the strategic approach to management of development of activity consists in ensuring competitive advantage through development of the mechanism of a sustainable development of the enterprise. Only such approach gives to the enterprise a guarantee of stability of position in the market.

According to a number of researchers [2,4], as a theoretical basis of the mechanism of a sustainable development of the enterprise the dynamic theory of development of the enterprise from which follows serves that for ensuring acritical development the enterprise should operate with a view of its reduction in a condition of dynamic balance. However for the mechanism of a sustainable development of the enterprise to put in the basis only the dynamic theory will be insufficient. In the conditions of the market it is necessary to mean the management mechanism, but with the concretized conditions on providing a sustainable development of the enterprise.

From a position of the theory of management the problem of a sustainable development looks as follows: there is a system (world, state or production) which realized need for change of own behavior and intends to carry out this change. And, change it concerns fundamental process development. The system should pass from existing development to the steady, self-supporting development keeping environment.

Such development should be carried out only according to the chosen scheme, that is is operated.

Depending on influence of environment, internal factors, strategic tasks, the current specific features of the enterprise the mechanism of a sustainable development can include a set of various elements: organizational and administrative, technological, marketing, financial, investment etc., considered in various aspects. But this mechanism should give opportunity of free action to objective economic laws of development of economic system as complete, uniform organism.

Results of work of the enterprises, their structural divisions and the economic organizations depend, first of all, on such factors as:

- productive and economic or conditions necessary for implementation of economic activity: generally it is factors of resources (means of labor, objects of the labor and work);

- technical and economic (mechanization and automation of production, trading and other technological processes, introduction of achievements of a science, equipment, advanced technology and work organization);

- social and economic, reflecting a creative initiative and activity of workers, plant management level.

The complex analysis of factors forms methodological and information base for formation of the mechanism of a sustainable development of the enterprise. Interaction of factors reflects the relationships of cause and effect defining this process.

Research of the factors defining a sustainable development of the enterprise, represents big complexity as they are influenced by a set of various conditions the majority from which doesn't give in to a direct quantitative assessment by means of a certain indicator. The problem of these indicators to characterize current state, dynamics and development tendencies in the future.

Necessary condition for a sustainable development of the enterprise is its administrative stability which is understood as speed of reaction of an enterprise management system on external and internal influences.

The control system of the enterprises of a services sector includes the following components:

- principles and problems of management;

- administrative resources;

- organizational structure of management personnel;

- legal bases and economic methods of management;

- information and means of its processing.

The control system is dynamic, possesses ability to development, can pass from one qualitative condition to another, remaining system. In development control system elements gradually lose ability to carry out the functions set by it that leads to violation of structure of system. As a result there is a problem of preservation of structural identity of an enterprise management system, that is compliance maintenance between structure of its elements and the functioning purposes. Structural identity of a control system isn't established automatically, and reached by means of the organization.

When functioning enterprise management system its structure constantly resists to changes of elements of system. Therefore backlog of development of an enterprise management system from environment requirements is possible. Ability of a control system to keep balance between changes of elements of system and structure of management and defines administrative stability of the enterprise.

The basic principles of a sustainable development of the enterprises is the following:

- tseleoriyentirovannost: achievement of such ratio between elements at which at the enterprise long-term incentives of a sustainable development will remain;

- adaptability: the enterprise, as open system, should be adaptive i.e. adapt to change in environment to continue a sustainable development on long-term prospect. The external environment is a source of problem situations in activity of the enterprise which should be revealed in due time for adoption of adequate decisions. The main condition of adaptability is flexibility of strategic business management;

- integrity which is reached on the basis of unity of the following functions: ability of updating (reproduction), addition of missing elements and transformation of to qualitatively new system, preservation of financial balance. The principle of integrity is a factor defining productivity of activity of the enterprise and its financial stability. It is a question of equation and proportionality of elements of its activity: operational, investment and financial;

- dynamism: changes in one of parameters of activity of the enterprise, as a rule, lead to changes in others. Thus during every moment of time the enterprise is characterized by a certain set of indicators which reflect efficiency of its production and financial activity. The vector of a sustainable development of the enterprise gives the chance to define an enterprise condition during the concrete moment of time.

For ensuring stability of the enterprise application of strategy of the development, allowing to resist to negative impact of environment for the purpose of ensuring steady competitive advantage and bankruptcy prevention is necessary. Continuous search of new economic communications, expansion of sales markets is necessary. Only being in a mode of continuous updating technical, technological, personnel, the enterprise can survive in the conditions of the competition, strengthen the positions in the market.

Thus, management of a sustainable development of the enterprise of a services sector represents a set of the interconnected actions directed on achievement of the maximum social and economic effect and possibility of transition to qualitatively new condition by formation and regulation of the relations from internal and environment.

 

Literature

1. Batov G. H., Sheozhev M. A. The concept of a sustainable development in system of formation of production complexes of the region. Nalchik: KBNTs Russian Academy of Sciences publishing house, 2010. 144 ses/

2. Guriyeva L. Strategy of a sustainable development of the region//Problems of the theory and practice of management. - 2007. - No. 2. -

3. Mayburov I. Sustainable development as koevolyutsionny process II Society and economy. - 2004. - No. 4.

4. Pchelintsev O. S. Regional economy in system of a sustainable development. - M: Science, 2004.

5. Salitov L.R. Sustainable development and quality economic .//Economic sciences. 2008.11 (48).