Jamilya I. Izmailova, applicant
Farida A. Moiseieva, phD
Donetsk National university of economics and trade
named after M. Tugan-Baranovskiy, Ukraine
Some aspects of sustainable environmental
and economic development
The current phase of economic development is characterized by intensification of processes of environmental violations. Economic and ecological aspects of the interaction of concern not only regionally but also globally. The most urgent problems of economic and environmental interactions associated with an increase in the level of industrialization, the prevalence of nature intensity of industries and obsolete technologies. To successfully solve these problems at the present time are widely used and implemented the technical and technological processes, which can provide only a slight improvement of the environment in a particular region, it is not enough to solve the problem of pollution in general. The solution of the current economic and environmental situation is possible only if the strategy of sustainable development, which will be based on a combination of economic, environmental and social principles. The need for such, was first noted at the International Conference on Environment and Development Economics, held in Rio de Janeiro (1992). This is reflected in policy documents on sustainable development of almost all countries in the world. In the current context of economic globalization, regional and national systems compete with each other in different areas (economic, environmental, social) in the creation of a world model of western civilization. This competition leads to the formation and development of various concepts of economic and environmental development as well as the need for the harmonization of certain policies. In this regard, the analysis of sustainable development requires treatment to all levels of the economic system - from the micro level, where there are pollution, to the mega-level, spreading global economic and environmental resources.
The main task of any economic system is sustainable and balanced development. The problem of stability is developed for a long time, but still remains much controversy because of the dynamism and versatility of this problem. Due to the perceived need to develop a new ecological strategy human development to economic science of the XXI century was made ambiguous and rather complex methodological question is whether to resolve the issues of environmental and economic sustainability of currently existing concepts of economic theory or they do require some transformation. If the transformation is needed, how deep and substantial, it should be. In general, broadly search for answers to these questions are related to the analysis of trends in contemporary theory, and certainly from a historical retrospective of the practice: Is it possible to solve this problem by methods of the existing social and economic theories, institutions and relationships, or do they already require recycling seriously. The answers to this question scientists are divided into a number of areas, many of which contradict each other, but many of them have similar positions on some crucial aspects. To analyze the concepts of modern approaches to the problems of ecology and typology of the current environmental outlook is beginning to turn to their theoretical and ideological roots, the existing social practice. One of the most advanced environmental movements, within which approaches have emerged to existing problems, there was a conservative movement that emerged in the United States at the beginning of the XIX century. The name of the movement was from the English word conservation, which means "saving", purpose of this movement - the preservation of nature as a natural habitat of all living things and, above all, human. The representatives of this movement have expressed vigorous protests against the consumer attitude towards nature, which is caused by production processes in the emerging industrial society. The basis of the movement in philosophical understanding of life, the sanctity and inviolability of the gift. Therefore, they tend to an absolute reverence for all forms of animate and inanimate nature, as all God's creation. These basic concepts can be found in the writings of many scholars (A.Shveytser, E.Leopold), where they are represented in the form of an ethical imperative "reverence for life" or "sacred ground". In this case, E. Leopold thought the concept of "sacred ground" the main basis of ecological consciousness, asserting rights in the idea of personal responsibility for the planet. However, the principle of personal responsibility is not dominant in addressing environmental and economic sustainability. According conservative movement, the main principle in solving this problem can and should become a principle of moderation, which has several ethical and material aspects. The main aspect - moderate consumption, defined by the presence of the need for environmental and physical constraints in the production of goods and, therefore, as a consequence, and the inadmissibility of an overabundance of goods from one of the members of society with a deficiency or absence of those in the other. This factor makes the "responsible person" to temper their needs, so as not to infringe on others. The end point conservative movement activity is to maintain the natural ability to reproduce itself. Since the beginning of the Club of Rome (60 - 70 years of the last century) to discuss the problems of ecological and economic sustainable development is gaining scale and popularity. Projections of the Club of Rome's leaders will inevitably come the economic crisis gave impetus to the development of Serious this subject by scientists in developed countries. Scientists have been put forward justification for the partial shutdown of economic growth, the so-called "zero growth in GDP", which would give the possibility of providing environmental and economic sustainability. Around the same time, generated basic theory of "social ecology", which, strictly speaking, is the result of the various mass movements: student, feminist, "New Left", etc. Based on the principles of environmental ethics of conservative movement adherents of the social environment determine the causes of environmental instability operational nature of the relationship between man and nature. One of the founders of this theory was M.Bukchich scientist who believed that the main causes of social problems and the destruction of the environment are the presence of authoritarianism and hierarchy. Thus, the philosophical basis of the concept of social ecology are many social movements, such as racism, chauvinism and militarism are positioned as a phenomenon with a clear against-ecological nature. The need for equal rights for all members of society and the possibility of free development is clearly inspired by the concepts of the feminist movement. In the environmental context, this can be interpreted as follows: equal rights in obtaining clean air and clean water, industrial development, which would be consistent with international environmental standards, use of environmentally friendly technologies. In the "World Conservation Strategy" presented by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1980) used the concept of "sustainable development". It involves the development, contributing not only to improve the quality of life for both present and future generations, but also the preservation of nature. " According to the wording of the UN Commission on Environment and Development (1987), the development of society is "sustainable", can be maintained for a long time if it "caters to the needs of current generations without compromising the capacity left in future generations to meet their own needs. " To some extent, the global nature of the concept of environmentally sustainable economic development is interrelated, especially with complex ecological, economic, social and institutional problems. Sustainable development of the modern economy should be viewed through the lens occurred in recent years, large-scale structural changes in the global economy, politics, social structure, technology and ecology. Systematic approach to the study of economic and environmental processes and conditions for sustainable economic development determines the main ways of solving the general problem of environmental humanization, namely, survival under conditions of limited resources and, to a large extent, already irreversibly damaged the natural environment.
A modern regulatory mechanism of adverse external factors, largely prevents the formation of an effective economic and environmental policies, which aim was to be the economic and ecological balance, when the power mechanisms of self-cleaning system in the biogeochemical cycle ensures removal of contaminants prior to their harmful effects. It should be noted that no strategy of economic growth or preservation strategy can be effective mechanisms for the successful resolution of complex economic-ecological interactions. The fundamental conclusion is the need for global economic and environmental policy, taking into account the peculiarities of individual nation states.