Trukhachev V.I., Zlydnev N.Z., Starodubtzeva G.P., Sychev O.V.

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Stavropol State Agrarian University, Stavropol

Beet topper - protein and vitamin herbal komponent

Beetroot - a truly versatile vegetable. Many people, especially in the Caucasus, ispolzuyutv food not only root vegetable with a distinctive sweet taste, but also the beet tops (Figure), which during the formation and growth of root crops are actively growing in the garden.

Drawing - beetleaves

 

Fiber and pectin, contained in the leaves of beets are effective dietary fibers that contribute to the revitalization of the gastrointestinal tract and the prevention of intestinal diseases. Coloring vegetable enzymes - flavonoids. These substances increase the strength of the capillaries, lower blood pressure, stimulate the formation of red blood cells, relieve vascular spasms.100g of beet tops (moisture content 90%) contained: ash - 1 g starch - 0.5 g mono- and disaccharides - 5 g of organic acid - 0.1 g dietary fiber - 0.5 g which presented pectins and fiber. Energy value of fresh beet tops is 28.2 kcal, the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, respectively: 1.2 g (5 kcal - 17%), 0.1 g (1 kcal - 3%), 6 g (24 kcal - 85%) [1]. Therefore, it is recommended greens for salads and soups to enhance activity of the gastrointestinal tract and prevent diseases of the intestine. Characterized beet greens and rich vitamin and mineral composition. When used 100 g of beet tops person is able to meet the daily requirement for iron by 16.5%, cobalt - 75% [2]. The structure also includes beet tops choline (vitamin B4), contributes to the normalization of the liver and protects it from fatty degeneration, as well as a sufficient amount of vitamin E and U, which is particularly relevant in diseases of the blood vessels. Therefore, beet tops at the same time can also be a food ingredient, a positive effect on metabolism, and as a consequence - the general condition of the body. In Russia out of it cooked soup and included meat, large and even desertnyeblyuda. At present, the increased interest in the various plants and herbs, is a natural source of nutrients for the body. Dried leaves of beets can be positioned as a high-value protein and vitamin fitokomponent natural resources, slowing down the aging process. Low moisture content (Table 1) enables the shelf life of no less than 1 year. At a sufficiently high dry matter (11.24%), the level of dietary fiber - fiber and pectin, as well as macro- and microelements (13.2%), which include potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, sulfur, magnesium, etc.

 

Table 1 - Chemical composition of dried beet tops

 

Mass fraction, %

Moisture

Crude protein

Crude fat

Crude fiber

Crude ash Nitrogen

Free extractives

4,8

26,27

0,83

11,24

13,2

43,66

 

As part of the protein fraction of beet tops contains 16 amino acids (Table 2), seven of which are essential in human nutrition.

 

Table 2 Chemical composition of driedbeettops

 

Amino Acid

Content, %

Contentintermsofprotein, %

Aminoacidswift,

%

Essential amino acids

5,71

21,74

 

valine

0,93

3,54

70,80

isoleucine

0,69

2,63

65,75

leucine

1,43

5,44

77,71

lysine

0,78

2,97

54,00

methionine

0,14

0,53

15,14

threonine

0,87

3,31

82,75

phenylalanine

0,87

3,31

94,5

Nonessentialaminoacids

10,91

41,53

 

alanine

1,01

3,84

 

arginine

0,81

3,08

 

asparticacid

1,77

6,74

 

histidine

0,71

2,70

 

glycine

0,95

3,62

 

glutamicacid

3,29

12,52

 

proline

0,82

3,12

 

serine

0,93

3,54

 

tyrosine

0,62

2,36

 

Total:

 

63,27

 

 

However, evaluation of amino-acid score (AAS) (1) showed that, like all vegetable proteins, protein beet tops is not a full-fledged.

AAS = (AK mg test protein per 1g) / (mg AA per 1 g protein of ideal) ×100 (1)

where AK - each essential amino acid.

It is particularly scarce are sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine, which is quick, is only 15 %. Noteworthy is sufficiently high in protein content and aspartic amino acids glutamine (total 19.26 %). They are becoming more and more popular, are produced in the form of pharmaceutical preparations, food additives included in the complex composition and even sports nutrition available as flavoring seasonings (salt of glutamic acid). The uniqueness of glutamic and aspartic amino acids as in the fact that for the interconversion of each other all the essential amino acids must be converted first to glutamic or aspartic acid, which is regarded as the "integration of nitrogen metabolism in the body". Therefore dry leaf beet as protein and vitamin components appropriate to include in the vegetable mixes for cakes fillings and other dishes that will improve their nutritional value and help improve vitality and immunity.

Literature

1. http: // findfood. ru / product / svekolnaja-botva

2. Kurguzova, K.S. Issledovanie chemical composition of foliage beet as raw material for food functionality / K.S. Kurguzova, G.M. Bunny, E.A. Mishchenko // Proceedings of the higher educational institutions. Food technology. 2012. 1 (325). S. 24-26.