Pogodina S.V., Yuferev V.S., Aleksanyants G.D., Borodina K.A.
Crimean Federal University of V.I. Vernadsky, Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia
Physiological changes in the cardiovascular system in the organism of the male athletes in the age range 17-46 years.
Functional capabilities of cardiovascular system are determined by the peculiarities of autonomic regulatory influences in various periods of ontogenesis and vary widely both in relation to endogenous mediators and to the nature of the vascular responses to physical stimuli [2, 3, 4]. The study of functional changes in the cardiovascular system during ontogenesis, is an important task of developmental physiology. The most commonly used methodological approach to solve this problem in a sports activity was to study the functional changes in the cardiovascular system (CVS) of athletes in the direction from the unstable stage of adaptation to reserve stage of the long-term adaptation against the background of the age development. This problem was viewed extremely rare  and has not been studied purposefully in the direction from the reserve stage of long-term adaptation to the stage of loss of functional reserves against the background of involutional processes in the organism of the athletes. In this connection, the main purpose of this work is to study the functional changes in the cardiovascular system of the male athletes in the age range 17-46 years. Also to study the degree of influence of physical activity on age-related changes in the СVS of athletes was investigate the untrained males of 17-46 years.
Methods: The study involved athletes, who are engaged in kinds of sports aimed at the development of strength and endurance, as well as untrained males from three age groups: 17-18 years (boys), 22-26 years (the first period of mature age) and 40-46 years (the second period of mature age).Total were examined 180 people. Kardioritmogramm analysis was used to study heart rate variability and the method of reography was used to study hemodynamic responses [1, 4]. Statistically significant differences were determined by Student t-test. Also the Spearman correlation analysis was used. The results of studies have shown that athletes of the second period of mature age have changes in the functions of the cardiovascular system compared with athletes boys and athletes of the first period of mature age, which is manifested in the reduction of regulatory and cardiovascular hemodynamic mechanisms in relation to age and adaptation processes. The detected functional changes that are common to all athletes of the second period of mature age are expressed in lowering of heart rate variability, in an increase of vagosympathetic index and in a high degree of inertia intraorganic regulation of the heart muscle. Analogous changes are typical for untrained persons of the second period of mature age. The functional changes that associated with the specifics of long-term adaptation in athletes of the second period of mature age are manifested in hyperkinetic reaction to dosed load from arterial pressure, in inadequately for metabolic demand increase in left ventricular in athletes who are engaged in kinds of sports, aimed at the development of strength and in non-reactivity of vascular and cardiac components in athletes, who exercise endurance. Vascular response to standard load in untrained persons of the second period of mature age are associated with decrease in diastolic blood pressure. The cardiac responses are associated with the fall of left ventricular working capacity with increasing the intensity of the blood flow. There is a direct interrelation of index LF / HF and minute volume of blood flow, at runtime the dosed physical loads by athletes of the second period of mature age, who are engaged in kinds of sports, aimed at the development of endurance. This indicates a close direct correlation vagosympathetic index dependence on the intensity of blood circulation in athletes of 40-46 years, who exercise endurance. There is a dependence of the hemodynamic parameters on variability indices in the group of athletes, who are engaged in kinds of sports, aimed at the development of strength. The strong interrelation of autonomic regulation mechanisms with a degree of relaxation of the myocardium was marked in untrained persons of the second period of mature age.
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