Vladimir Husak, Pavel Slobozaninov
Chernivtsi National University named after Yuriy Fedkovych
Physical Rehabilitation as One of the Main Methods of Human Health Recovery
Setting the problem. The rates of social, technological, economic and even climate changes require quick adaptation from a man. Unfortunately, human body experiences difficulties with total recovery of its functions or returning to the usual life after having injuries. General disability after injuries and orthopedic illnesses amount 25%, and 80% of patients after strokes forever lose ability to work. According to the statistics, 26% of patients lose ability to work and enter the category of disabled due to the late and irregular recovery treatment and underestimation of basic means of physical rehabilitation, directed to the restoration of the lost movement function.
The development of the medical science enriches theoretical and practical basis of the given field, i.e. implementation during rehabilitation of ill people and disabled. One of the most effective recovery methods of treatment is physical rehabilitation, the integral part of which is physiotherapy. The main tools of physical rehabilitation are physical exercise and natural factors. The necessary condition of the physical rehabilitation is active, willful and purposeful participation of the patients in the process of treatment and doing physical exercise.
Analysis of the recent research and publications allow stating that one can get acquainted with the topic of rehabilitation only partially, particularly in the works of P. K. Anokhin, R. M. Bayevskyi, Y. K. Gaverdovskyi, S. V. Dmitriyev, V. M. Mukhin and others. The term “physical rehabilitation” has lots of interpretations; particularly, in Ukrainian and English sources it is interpreted almost similarly. Rehabilitation is a complex of means directed to the recovery of impaired functions of human body and labor capacity of the ill and disabled.
The aim of the investigation is the aspiration to prove that one can both restore lost functions to the human body and prevent development of the illness relapse by active applying physical rehabilitation.
Physical rehabilitation (PhR) – is an independent theoretical and practical discipline which is aimed at the restoration of the lowered level of health by means of prevention progression the disposable illness, replacement of the lost functions and returning labor capacity by means of physical culture with the use of healing natural factors.
The most peculiar feature of the method PhR is the use of strictly dosed physical exercise. That is why it is very important to define which level of physical activity is recommended for this or that patient, taking into consideration the character of the illness, level of the functional disorders, general condition of the patient and adaptation to the physical stress. Depending on the therapeutic tasks, the doctor has to dose and methodically rule the use of PhR during the treatment course. PhR as a method of treatment is a part of the complex therapy. It is used at all stages of rehabilitation both during acute condition of an illness and at the closing, post-in-patient treatment and sanatorium and resort stages; it is successfully combined with medicine therapy and different physiotherapeutic methods of treatment.
It is accepted to combine rest and movements in the clinic, which always complement each other, while the rehabilitation process. It is known that movement is the most important biological stimulant of body vital functions, and no other method, used in medicine with the purpose of rehabilitation, can be equal to physical exercise.
But, to my mind, the rehabilitation itself (according to the interpretation of this notion by the experts of WHO (World Health Organization)) is the process with the help of which there is a possibility to prevent disability during treatment an illness and assist disabled to achieve physical, professional, social and economic completeness, which is possible within the frames of the illness.
Hence, rehabilitation is a complex of treatment, psychological, pedagogic, social and labor means directed to the restoration of patient’s health and working capacity.
The main instrument of PhR is physical exercise; its use is always a pedagogic and educational process, whose quality depends on the methodologist’s mastering of pedagogic skills and knowledge. This very process is a medical-pedagogic discipline which rests on the achievements of medicine, physical education and sport. The rehabilitation process itself is conducted according to the predefined program. One can say that the majority of such programs have been composed according to the functional type. It means that coming from the existing disorder or deficiency in a human body, being guided by the data of the local pathology, one picks motor actions which compensate or favorably influence restoration of the impaired function. Further, coming from the selected motor actions, one forms the sequence of physical exercise which make up the basis of the developed complex of PhR. It means that every rehab program has its own complex of physical exercise according to the treatment course.
After the corresponding drug therapy the main attention is focused to the restoration of the vital function – movement, especially after injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and the nervous system. Different orthopedic means are used with this purpose: prostheses, crutches, canes, wheelchairs. The function therapy rooms are equipped with special stands and tables for restoration domestic skills. In case of permanent disability (amputation) there takes place an adaptation of surrounding conditions of the disabled to his physical capacity (the stairs are equipped, elevators, public transport, flats).
According to its origin rehabilitation can be distinguished as medical, psychological, pedagogic, social-economic, professional, domestic and physical.
PhR takes one of the most important places in the complex of rehabilitation means; it was based on the wide use of physical culture means. Rehabilitation of patients with serious functional disorders may be carried out in departments of rehabilitation therapy of Research Institutes, hospitals of medical universities, hospitals of disabled veterans, regional clinics and polyclinics, suburban parts of hospital with a rehabilitation profile, specialized sanatoriums, special boarding schools (for children who have poliomyelitis, Cerebral Palsy, scoliosis), therapeutic resorts with a balneotherapeutic profile, therapeutic-physical cultural dispensaries, health centers.
Conclusions. Modern physical rehabilitation crossed classical boarders of medical-pedagogic science, having become an interdisciplinary scientific and practical branch of knowledge. Theory and methodology of physical culture, medical philosophy and general pathology as theoretical bases of medical-pedagogic discipline must become the foundation and methodological basis of its interdisciplinarity. Besides, one should keep in mind the achievements of rehabilitators from different countries where the given area has a wider scope of activities.
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