Philological Sciences/9. Ethnolinguistics
Candidate of Philological Sciences Gerdt E.V.
Siberian State Automobile and Highway Academy, Russia
Stages of lived time in English and Russian phraseology
This scientific research is devoted to comparison of Russian and English idioms that reflect main stages of human life from birth to death.
Being one of the basic categories of thinking, universal concept lived time (the term of Yakovleva E. S.) constantly attracts scientists’ attention of different spheres.
The topicality of this research is determined by a number of factors:
Necessity of integrative approach development synthesizing results of theoretical and practical studies in different spheres of science on human being especially research of person’s lived time as national cultural phenomenon in comparative aspect;
Necessity of some theoretical problems’ development in the field of comparative phraseology especially the definition of phraseological unit, idiom, phraseological meaning. With this aspect the opportunity of development and improvement of research method of phraseological units in comparative aspect, taking into account their semantic features, is connected.
The purpose of this research is to reveal universal and specific characteristics in the verbal representation of the concept lived time in the semantics of dictionaries’ definitions of English and Russian phraseological units.
The 507 phraseological units connected with integral and peripheral semes «life stages in the development of human being» and obtained from different types of dictionaries make up the material of this research.
The main method of the research is the descriptive method including some complex of procedures and techniques.
1) By the way of continuous sampling method phraseological units with the meaning of lived time were selected from different English and Russian dictionaries.
2) For systematization and generalization of the material distributional analysis was used. The selected phraseological units were subjected to intralingual semantic analysis, component analysis in its definition form. Also the technique of material classification according to semantic characteristics was used.
3) As well for systematization of gathered material the comparative method including the technique of giving an index of interlanguage correspondence to every unit and quantitative calculations was used.
4) For the national specific description of analyzed phraseological units linguistic cultural analysis including finding out the etymology of given units, technique of metaphoric modeling, revelation of interlanguage irrelevances (lacunes) and their calculation was applied.
The scientific novelty of this research consists of a number of constituents:
à) The description of temporal model of lived time in English in comparison with Russian in anthropocentric aspect on the material of phraseological units is given;
á) Mechanisms of thinking of temporal fragment and formation of corpus of linguistic units with the meaning of life stages in English and Russian are revealed;
â) Linguistic cultural content of conceptual, image-bearing and value constituents of the model of lived time in comparative aspect is defined.
In conclusion we can summarize this research and outline prospects of further study of such phraseological material.
Thus in the issue of comparative analysis of phraseological units the system of specific images characteristic for English and Russian linguistic cultures were chosen; also sources of outward cultural interpretation of considered phraseological units were revealed. They are ritual forms of national culture, corpus of proverbs, images-standards, symbols, Christianity, literary works, country-specific information.
The analysis of gathered material enabled to distribute phraseological units to universal types of metaphoric models on their image base (anthropomorphic, naturemorphic, sociomorphic and artifact metaphors). Thus phraseological units with anthropomorphic images are widely spread in both traditions, the choice of naturemorphic and zoomorphic images is determined by geographic factor, phraseological units with sociomorphic images are more represented in English language, phraseological units with artifact images in English language are connected with legal category and specific food, and in Russian they are connected with stages of socialization and clothes.
The analysis of connotative characteristics of phraseological units, represented in the dictionaries, makes it possible to show value dominants appropriate for compared linguistic cultures. Thus, in English linguistic world picture positive characteristics are legitimacy, initial wealth, age accession, secured old age. In the Russian linguistic world picture childhood, premarital period, and «nonlabor» old age are disapproved because these periods are beyond common life of society in Russian culture. Also in both linguistic traditions old maid is not approved.
The comparison of phraseological units with the meaning of lived time enabled to find out mismatches at verbal representation of life way: reflection of youth period, marriage, and also there are partial differences ïðè designation of old age and the end of life. National cultural peculiarity of these phraseological units in English and Russian linguistic world pictures appears in the issue of different bases of dividing of temporal fragment of reality. Also different semantic filling of phraseosemantic groups and subgroups with the meaning «life stages in the development of human being» is observed.
The comparative analysis of given units revealed that for English consciousness social legal determined model of perception of lived time is predominant and for Russian consciousness the natural age gradation of life stages is prevailing.
The comparison of English phraseological units that don’t have adequate analogs in Russian language enables to choose bases for formation of lacunes, occurring on the basis of dominant conceptual spheres, representative for traditional British culture (sport, society, legal regulation of family and marriage relations). The reasons of this lacunarity is in different cultural constituents, mismatch of mental net, determined by differences in visual environment, legal conceptions, social sphere.