ÓÄÊ 551. 438.5 (470. 311)
R. T. Bexeitova
Geographic Faculty, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, al-Farabi 71, Almaty, RK
TO THE PROBLEM OF PROPERTIES ECOLOGICAL - GEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES.
The article is inspected problem of allocation of the object of environmental geomorphology – basic scientific sector of the modern geomorphology as the object of research is invited to "morpholitotype" and their systems.
One of the major challenges of our time is to preserve the quality of the environment - the human environment. One part of the problem is geoecological, caused by the interaction of natural and anthropogenic processes.
Relevance geoecological problem is determined by two factors - significant population growth against a background of limited natural resources of the planet and the rapid growth of production and associated with them pollutant waste. They became the reason for the sharp deterioration of life-sustaining qualities of the natural environment. The solution to this problem has become one of the most important tasks in many natural sciences, including geomorphology. Consequently, the greening of geomorphological studies and mapping the results of these studies are not just fashion, but quite natural phenomenon. Very well noted this fact in his time V.B. Sochava (1970) – “Ecology in a broad sense is the filter through which must pass a geographic (including geomorphological - RB) information before using it in solving practical problems”. It can therefore be determined to speak about the formation of a new theoretical - applied direction of geomorphology - environmental geomorphology, studying the relationship and the results of the interaction of geomorphic systems with that of human ecology. Of the environmental factors determining the degree of comfort habitat of man, his life and livelihoods, geomorphological factor is an essential.
Geomorphological environment as part of the overall human environment, has the property of spatial variability. A manifestation of this property is the morphology of the relief. It is this property geomorphological environment provides an answer to the question - how and in what borders to conduct environmental research in solving practical problems. In this connection, you can quote the A.G. Isachenko: “without defined spatial boundaries and territorial binding, without science-based territorial ordering all information relating to the environment, ... talk about solving environmental (including ecological and geomorphological problems - RB) problems are transformed into an empty phrase. This principle of territorial attachment, which has certain spatial boundaries can and should serve the relief of the earth's surface, its morphology. Therefore the analysis of eco-geomorphic environment is inseparable from the definition of ecosystem boundaries, their mapping and study of their spatial relationships. Incorrect or inaccurate representations about the spatial localization of ecological -geomorphological problems lead to mistakes in choosing solutions.
Ecological position of the relief twofold. On the one hand relief serves as a major factor in the formation, differentiation and spatial dynamics of ecosystems and their components, and on the other - the relief is itself a product of material-energy interaction geographic components (including man-made components). From the first point of view, great importance is the morphological structure of the territory and the differences lithogenic composition of the rocks. And on the other - the conversion of relief by weakening, strengthening or transformation ekzodinamic processes, cause modification of the remaining components by human activities. Ekzodinamic processes should have been called, after the Gorshkov S.P. / 1 /, all changes to the surface of earth's crust due to external and sometimes internal influences occurring in certain thermodynamic conditions of the biosphere.
A variety of natural body (rocks, unconsolidated sediments, the crust of weathering, soils, water, microorganisms, gases), the surface of the Earth's crust associated flows of matter and energy together and form different degrees of complexity, stability, tightness of connections and types of functioning natural ekzomorfodinamic systems.
Elementary ekzomorfodinamic system - a system of spatially related in its development of relief’s elements at a certain lithological substrate. It limits the qualitative and quantitative composition and speed ekzodinamic processes have similarities in the extent to which it provides uniformity litomorfny structure and functioning of the unit ekzomorfodinamic system. This elementary ekzomorfodinamic system author proposed calling morfolitotip / 2 /. Morfolitotips may occupy different spatial and altitudinal position. Elementary morfolitotips occupying watershed or interfluves position may be called, using the terminology M.A. Glazovsky / 3 /, autonomous, and are at lower hypsometric levels - subordinates. The latter can be divided into transit and end. An example of transit morfolitotips are different slopes and end - the bottom of valleys, basins, etc. Differences space-altitude situation will determine the nature and intensity of ekzodinamic processes. At different hypsometric levels, spatially articulated morfolitotips can be combined into morfolitosistems. In this case the system is determined by author attitude of parts of the whole through the interaction, here refers to a dynamic, not a genetic aspect. This approach allows, firstly, to give not only qualitative descriptions of the state, but also to analyze the quantitative relationship between events and objects in the system, secondly, to separate effects of both within the directly "used" morfolitotip and neighboring morfolitotips. Thus it is possible to trace the nature and degree of response of the various morfolitotips at the same anthropogenic impact. And on this basis to conduct forecasting studies.
Before defining the content of ecological - geomorphological studies, it is necessary to determine the role of relief in the "environmental bond" components of the environment. Actually environmental, according to P. Baklanov / 4 /, are the feedback components of the environment with the elements of the biota, with the population, their status and functioning. Direct communication, expressed in the form of real-energy effects of elements of the biota, a man with his technical equipment to the abiotic components of the environment, are not in its content of environmental, although these relationships have a significant impact on the feedback, their changes. However, to fully reveal the features of both real and possible (potential) return (environmental) relations, that is of primary importance in solving the environmental problems needed a more detailed and comprehensive study of direct links.
Tests of ecological - geomorphological studies and their mapping in the present are ways and means to reflect the patterns of development of the relief, relief-forming processes, depending on the status and trends of the components (including the mostly man-made) environment (a reflection of direct links) . The focus of the interaction of all components of the environment is top of the crust - litomorfny part. Anthropogenic influence on the latter may be direct (plowing the land, construction of canals, mining, etc.) and indirect (effects on vegetation, hydrographic network through a water transfer, the creation of reservoirs, land reclamation, hydraulic and industrial construction, etc. ). Any of them will eventually "closes" on the surface and subsurface of the earth's crust. The morphology of the relief and lithology define a number of key parameters (overall slope, groundwater depth, the differences in the distribution of temperature and precipitation, soil salinity, terrain ruggedness, etc.), which determine the nature and course of the flow of natural ekzodinamic processes and the emergence of new man-made processes and forms.
The influence of human activity over time may appear on any remote areas of the earth surface, covering a significant area morfolitosistems. Moreover, the nature and intensity of indirect manifestations can be different depending on the morphology (including hypsometry) of relief, the content and properties of lithogenic formations. Morfolitotips, as the basis of formation of elementary landscape-ecological units and forming the elementary ecological -geomorphological units can serve as indicators of the type and extent of economic impact and reflect the consequences of this exposure. The spatial combination of elementary ecological-geomorphological units form, in turn, ecological - geomorphological systems. So the object of ecological - geomorphological studies can be morfolitotips and their systems - morfolitosistems.
Gorshkov S.P. Ekzodinamic processes of
the mastered territories. - Moscow:
"Nedra", 1982. - 286
2. Bekseitova R.T. On the concept of “morfolitotip” in ecology - geomorphological studies //
International scientific conference “Modern problems of ecology and sozology”.
– Kazakhstan, Almaty: 2001. – P.: 55-56
3. Glazovsky M.A. Landscape-geochemical systems and their resistance to technogenesis. // In the book: Biogeochemical cycles in the biosphere. - M.: MSU, 1976. – P.: 99-141.
4. Baklanov P.I. Ecological and geographic content in zoning and mapping. // Proceedings of "Ecological - geographical mapping and zoning of Siberia. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1990. - P.: 68-71