Export potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Kyzylorda region
B.A.Shaimerden, master student
Korkyt Ata Kyzylorda State University, Kazakhstan
Abstract. The article the state of export potential in Kazakhstan, as well as in the Kyzylorda region as a summary of resource opportunities in this or that area of management.
Keywords. Export potential, economic resources, social infrastructure, production assets, natural wealth, level, national income, economic growth.
Entry into the world economy for any country is determined by the degree of openness and development of its economy, the content of the export potential, the effectiveness of using certain resources in the economy and trade relations. Therefore, at the present stage, it is the task of its best use and application in accordance with the approaches adopted in developed countries to the formation of export potential. The formation of an "open" economy in Kazakhstan predetermined the need for its further development. The results of the country's industrialization have largely resolved the import substitution process without realizing the potential of export opportunities. Moreover, according to the authors, Kazakhstan's trade and economic relations with other countries indicate that at present the republic's existing potential is not being fully realized.
The concept of "export potential" is often found in both economic literature and business practices. Practically speaking about the same thing, i.e. The concept of "external economic" and "export" potential is used in the literature of the republic beyond its borders, and the subject of activity abroad usually refers to a country or an enterprise. Less common are articles on the experience of foreign trade in a particular region or region. In today's economy, when the process of industrial development of the country is going on more than ever, in our opinion, it is necessary to talk specifically about the region and its possibilities in strengthening the export potential of the whole country.
Mean while, in the process of this study, a need a monographic study of the essence of this issue. In Soviet economic literature, especially in the times of developed socialism, this problem was also widely used in conducting economic research. The essence of the phenomenon was that it meant the combined ability of the branches of the national economy to produce industrial, agricultural products, to cary out capital construction, to transport goods, to provide services to the population, and so on. . It seems that the concept as a whole has not undergone significant changes in the conditions of market economy.
The study of scientific literature has shown that the economic or socio-economic potential is understood as the summary characteristic of resource opportunities in a particular area of management.
In aggregate, economic resources form the potential of either a national economy, a region of the world or the entire world economy. In this sense, we should agree with Z.D. Tazhieva's approach, which notes that "economic potential is a synthetic concept that characterizes the development of economic productive forces and economic relations and consists of some aggregate potential depending on the level of economic entities under consideration, which, in turn , Is determined by such features of production systems as the scale and nature of the activity. " Thus, it can be said that in the economic concept the economic factors included factors of production (natural and climatic, fixed assets, labor resources) in quantitative and qualitative assessment.
The concrete content and volumes of economic potential, both in general and its component part - the social infrastructure, can not be defined by formal definitions, but disclosed in the course of research on social production. Accordingly, in the economic potential of the productive spheres of activity included qualified personnel, production assets and natural resources, and in the non-productive sphere of activity - the number of employees, material resources, and accumulated material values.
Proceeding from the above, the authors who investigated this phenomenon identified the following three blocks as the main elements:
- the quantity and quality of natural resources. The block "Natural Resources" combines indicators and indicators that characterize: the availability of natural resources in the region, belonging to the components of nature: forest, water, minerals and others, their use in the material and non-material sphere, ecological and economic characteristics of exploitation of natural resources;
- quantity and quality of labor resources. The block "Labor resources" includes indicators characterizing the social and demographic state of the population: the number and composition, location and movement of the population of the region; Indicators that determine the patterns of population development, which include indicators of reproduction and migration, unemployment and labor productivity, nominal and real wages of one employee; Structure of consumer incomes and expenditures of the population; The state of the sphere of education, science, culture and health;
- level of use of production potential. The level of use of productive potential includes indicators characterizing the state of fixed capital: fixed assets of economic sectors, production capacities, capital investment, etc., which provide a comprehensive description of the technical and technological level of production. How rationally selected and connected to the system and used elements of the economic nature: resources, property, personnel, funds, scientific achievements, as well as determined and satisfied with the need for them to achieve and develop economically significant results for the society, will show an analysis of the economic potential of Kyzylorda Region.
Any society is interested in building up the economic potential to meet its needs and further expand the reproduction on a large scale on a better basis. This is consonant primarily with the problems of economic growth, etc. The higher the magnitude and growth rates of the country's potential, the faster other things being equal, the national income, its consumption and accumulation funds, which determine the level of people's consumption and the rate of expansion of reproduction, should increase. Summarizing the opportunities for economic growth, American scientists McConnell K.R. And Bru S.L. Wrote that "economic growth is defined and measured in two interrelated ways: as an increase in real GNP or PPP over a period of time or as an increase over a period of time of real GNP or PPP per capita. Both definitions are used. For example, if the focus is on problems of military-political potential, the first definition seems more appropriate. But when comparing the living standards of the population in individual countries and regions, the second definition is clearly more preferable. "
The multifaceted nature of such a phenomenon as economic potential requires the use of quantitative and qualitative measurement and evaluation separately. The level of development and use of economic potential can be defined as a possible increase in well-being at the expense of raising the standard of living, the comprehensive development of all members of society while rationally using the existing aggregate national economic potential. However, it can be implemented fully, partially or not at all. Consequently, it is hardly legitimate to consider the content of the phenomenon inseparably from the level of its use in the public interest.
Material-material predetermination of the resource approach assumes to subdivide it into aspects: scientific and technical, personnel intellectual, investment, information, spiritual, infrastructure potential, organizational and branch character. The latter implies the allocation of industrial, transport, construction, agricultural potential.
At the same time, it should be said that if in the economic literature there is still no specific definition of the economic potential, then it is even more difficult to determine the concept of export potential.
The study allows the export potential to be presented as an integral part of the economic potential, since the external economic sector of any country is an independent subject of economic activity. At the same time, whether it concerns industry, agriculture or other branches of the national economy, the export potential serves as an organic part of each of them. From here one can see the relationship and interdependence of the export potential with the main elements of the country's economic potential, its productive forces, and the economic indicators of the development of society.
In economic literature today there is no clear definition of the concept of "export potential", it can be argued that it arose almost with the advent of foreign trade. Along with the evolution of the world
In economic literature today there is no clear definition of the concept of "export potential", it can be argued that it arose almost with the advent of foreign trade. Along with the evolution of the world economy, the gradual development of scientific and technological progress and the expansion of the scope of its achievements have also improved the methods for ensuring and developing export potential.
The opinion of most scientists is that the need to study the features of export potential is related to the problem of its impact on obtaining the maximum possible socio-economic effect from the development and liberalization of the country's foreign economic relations. Hence the need to push away from the opinion of modern economists engaged in the study of foreign trade.
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