Avramenko Kateryna Oleksandrovna
National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute",
The influence of Greek culture in Ukrainian culture
Culture of every nation is a complex entity in the consideration and analysis is necessary to consider not only the economic, social and political conditions of life, but also influence of other cultures, modern or those that preceded it. Ukrainian culture of the people can not be regarded as a culture of Europe as a whole, excluding the impact of the culture of the ancient world. Without exaggeration - the ancient culture is the cradle of modern European civilization, which is part of Ukrainian culture. Whenever there was a process of revival and development of Ukrainian culture, he accelerated appeal to the sources. Pondering the impact of culture on ancient cultures of Ukraine, a new way of perceiving harmony, can find optimal solutions to problems that confronted our culture today.
Great Greek colonization is directly linked to the history of Ukraine, the Greeks left the Bosphorus and began to settle in the Black Sea. The first colonies appeared on the West Coast, and at the end of VII century. B.C. emerged and the Northern Black Sea coast on the Berezan island against Dnipro estuary.
Natives of Miletus seized banks Bug and founded the city of Olvia - an important outpost of the Greek colonies on the Black Sea. Miletyany is founded in the Crimean city of Feodosia, and on the Cimmerian Bosporus (Kerch Strait) on the territory of Kerch - Pantikapaion city, which later became a major center of the capital of the Northern Black Sea and Bosporus state. In the V century. B.C. near modern Sevastopol was founded Hersonissos.
Initially, the Greeks relations with local tribes limited commercial and cultural contacts that led to the flourishing ancient cities in the IV-III century. B.C. Culture of ancient city-states has affected all aspects of the Scythians, leaving a deep imprint on Ukrainian culture in general.
These colonies were bridges for communication with steppe Greek metropolitan population, which followed an intensive exchange of goods and livestock farming products. Steppe people bought items of handicraft production. It is believed that the Slavic youth could settle in the city-states and getting there knowledge in crafts, art, building, making pottery, weapons, jewelry.
Then, when the half-savage hordes of the steppe people invaded our land, destroying everything in its path, Greek colonists came from peaceful branch line commerce and culture. And although they prevailed before the Asian steppe raids, but left a lot, not only in the ruins of its colonies, but in the culture of its neighbors and followers.
Greeks exported from Ukraine fish, honey, wax, hair, bread and wine were brought here, oil, fabric, metal objects, painted, metal and pottery. This radically changed the culture and life of their neighbors; Some became half-greeks passed other Greek culture in the far north and east.
A purely democratic system and the republican system, moved by Greek colonists on the Black Sea, it soon became harmful in the new conditions of life. Need to say that the political power and influence of the Greek colonies did not extend beyond the limits of their cities. Living separately tiny city-states, the Greeks did not think even a defensive alliance of their colonies to repel the barbarians who encroached on all sides for their good. Only one Pantikapaion thanks to half-monarchical government, managed to organize a series of Greek colonies on the Azov Sea in the union, which has long resisted the barbarians, and even expanded its political influence on the colony Crimea.
Turned into ruins and no longer exist, but the impact of which was during their existence and cultural achievements left followers not gone unnoticed; the whole of Europe is still living on the vast cultural legacy of ancient Greece.
The influence of ancient culture in Ukraine observed even at the level of popular culture. Introducing the ancient culture heritage continued in Kyivska Rus. Maintained close trade relations with Byzantium. Greek merchants frequented Slavic cities, even living in them, had their church (the way "from the Vikings to the Greeks").
Slavic youth served in the imperial army - which received not only military training but also education. Items produced in Byzantium, were quite common in Kievan Rus - fabrics, ceramics, weapons that were obtained through both trade and war.
From ancient Greek culture and Slavs borrowed terracotta and frescoes. Terracotta (from the Italian's heating Ground) unglazed pottery with colored porous baked clay, mostly red, brown, cream color is architectural details, facing plates, dishes, vases.
Murals (fresh from Italian) painting paints, water or diluted in milk, fresh on wet plaster. Murals were used to decorate religious buildings, churches, cathedrals, palaces. They were known from 2 thousand. BC. e .. and have been distributed worldwide.
Ancient art has become a source for artistic culture of Ukraine. Carriers of Culture of Greece was the Greek city-states on the Black and Azov Seas, which had a huge impact on indigenous peoples of the Black Sea, including precursors and Slavs.
The synthesis of ancient pagan and ancient cultures was the ground on which developed Ukrainian culture, literature, art, philosophy of their humanistic, integrity, turning to the man, his mind sharp attention to ethical problems understanding the world through his aesthetic perception.
The tribes that lived in ancient times south of modern Ukraine were somewhat aware of not only material but also spiritual culture of the Greeks.
Part of the Scythians, Sarmatians have setteled in the Greek colonies received education or studying the craft. Gradually, especially in the Bosporus kingdom became more frequent marriages between the ruling classes of the colonies and the surrounding tribes.
Based on archaeological data, reports of ancient authors, for sure can be said about the influence of ancient art in Scythian art, especially jewelery, ceramics, construction, seen through the ruins of Scythian Neapolis. But the culture of spiritual influences are more problematic because of the great devotion to the ancient Scythians established customs.
Rather, you can not talk about influences, but of a common mythological images. The reason - common Indo-European roots. This applies both to the north (the tribes of steppe and forest zones) and Crimean Scythian neighbors. The population of ancient Crimea - Tauris, Cimmerians; Maeotae of the Azov Sea, the Dnipro tribes, like the Greeks, Scythians belonged to the Indo-European family of nations. But Ukraine is in the area of formation Indo-European tribes in the Neolithic period - the Bronze Age. After settling people related by common descent, retained traces in language, beliefs, rituals, especially the perception of the world, everything that we now call mentality.
Fullest they are stored in areas of spiritual culture, religion, folklore, especially the epic; ornamentation, which operates the ancient system of symbols, which encoded the philosophical idea. For example, the cult of mother goddess Lada, her daughter, the goddess of spring and Lialia god of light, the patron of herds teacher of wisdom and patron of musicians, forever young Midsummer was common to ancient Slavs, Greeks (Leto, Artemis, Apollo) and Indians (Davey , Krishna, Rukmini).
Even settled in large spaces, keeping only mention myths about their homeland, their relationship, people have a kind of "harmony" in the perception of the world. So quickly and readily perceive heritage of spiritual and material culture of each other, feel a craving for culture more mature people related to them. At a higher, perfect level rise in the culture of the same issues that concern them and there is close system of spiritual values, what might be called the similarity of cultures.
In Greek and Ukrainian culture clearly highlight-governmental such features as aesthetic perception of reality, anteyizm (some earthiness, communication with the ground), seeing the world as cosmos, the idea of Agon competitions opposing forces, while divine harmony. To some extent this can be considered a reason that culture is Slavic tribes Ukraine in the process of ethnogenesis clearly felt the significant impact of ancient cultures, especially the ancient Greek layer. Again and again, at different levels, it comprehend the range of issues raised, using symbolic language of ancient culture. Antique influence in Ukrainian culture can clearly be seen in our time inclusive. And if earlier, especially in seventeenth century. Was a process of assimilation heritage more highly developed culture, since the eighteenth century goes to another level of understanding, speaking philosophical language, "otherness" the idea that, in principle, a characteristic generally European culture, but each European national cultures makes it the closest otherness within the meaning of the ideas of ancient culture.
But really broad, thorough, in-depth familiarity with Slavic achievements of ancient culture took place after the introduction of Christianity in 988. By the time Christianity in the Byzantine Empire, and where it came to, was developed a monotheistic religion with a complex cult, exquisite religious art of the whole system canons, carefully developed doctrine, religious philosophy. Christianity has incorporated a number of achievements of ancient philosophical thought.
In the field of fine arts of antiquity strongest impact felt in HVP-sixteenth century. In the Renaissance. Ukraine at that time was part of the Commonwealth. In Poland since the end of the fifteenth century. followed rapid flowering of art and culture strongly influenced by the Renaissance Italian Art.
Renaissance evolved on the basis of ancient art, including Rome, the monument is so rich in Italy. Therefore, if the field of philosophy in Ukraine there is a Greek influence, in the arts most dominated by Roman influence. Introducing achievements, themes, attractions Roman art comes in different ways. First and most important - the art of the European Renaissance, the Italian and north.
Foreign artists who worked in Lviv, studied local apprentices, some of which completed the study, had traveled some time to improve their skills.
According to many researchers, we feel Greek influence in Ukrainian ethnography. Ukrainian folk costumes with its rich ornamentation has much in common with the Greek people's clothes. Many common with the Greek people and spiritual culture. The Greeks loved music, songs, festivals. Similar trends are observed in Ukrainian: the tendency to decorate their clothes, domestic situation, numerous rituals in people's lives.
Ancient art is one of the sources of culture of Ukraine. The influences of ancient culture stimulated the development of culture of Ukraine, enriching it with new ideas, new forms. The ancient art as a Greek, whom Ukrainian met through the Byzantine and Roman, which was best known at the time of the Renaissance, gave those artistic and architectural forms, methods of image world space organization, in conjunction with art pagan rise to the high culture Ukraine, gave artists the opportunity and the means to adequately implement their ideas, perception of the world. Ukrainian mentality able to express themselves in art gained artistic language. It was learned the spirit of antiquity, not only its form.