Tynbayeva G.S., Ilyassova A.A., Ilyassova B.I.
E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University,Karaganda, the Republic of Kazakhstan
CORRECTIONAL WORK ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDRENWITH MENTAL RETARDATIONUSING MNEMOTECHNICS
Modern socio-political and socio-economic conditions in Kazakhstan contribute to the sustainable development of intelligent software systems, personal and physical development of the child in the preschool age.
Basic principles and priorities of development of Kazakhstan's preschool education and training are defined in the “On Education” Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the State Programme for the Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, the Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2015, the Programme for the provision of pre-school education and "Balapan" education for 2010-2020.
One of the priorities in The State Program of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 is "to provide all children with qualified preschool education and training, equal access of children to various programs of early childhood care and education to prepare them for school" .
President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev in his Address to the Nation "Kazakhstan's way - 2050: Common goal, common interests, common future" connects the well-being of Kazakhstan to the modernization of education, "improving the quality of national education units". President made emphasis on the development of pre-school education and on increased attention to persons with disabilities .
Targeted systematic pre-school education and training is essential for the development of the mind of the child and later in school. The full assimilation of the curriculum of children is largely due to the level of their intellectual development.It is no accident that attention of psychologists, educators, defectologistsis aimed at in-depth study for children with mental retardation. There is certain experience accumulated in the organization of correctional and developmental assistance to preschool children with mental retardation in special kindergartens (U.V. Ulenkova, N.Y.Boryakova).
Ongoing transformation of cognitive sphere is extremely important for the further comprehensive development of the psyche in the preschool.
The great Russian physiologist and psychologist I.M. Sechenov wrote that the cornerstone of the mental development of the child is memory. Due to the child’s memory captures and summarizes past experience, acquires knowledge and skills. Formation of human personality is inconceivable without memory, because without summing up past experience there cannot be a unity of behavior and ways of determining the ratio of the system to the world .
A small number of works are dedicated to memory problems of preschool children with mental retardation (T.V.Egorova, V.I.Lubovsky, T.A.Vlasova, K.S.Lebedinskaya, V.L.Podobed, and M.S.Pevzner).
Clinical, psychological and pedagogical findings suggest that abnormalities in the development of memory are a characteristic feature of mental retardation. Specific features of the memory of children with mental retardation include: reducing the amount of memory and memorization speed; involuntary memorization is less productive than normal; memory mechanism is characterized by a decrease in productivity of the first attempts to memorize; predominance of visual memory over verbal; reduction of arbitrary memory; violation of a mechanical memory.
Causes of memory disorders of children with mental retardation are due to a variety of clinical factors (the effects of deferred cerebral and somatic diseases, the slow rate of maturation of certain brain areas, neurodynamic disorders), as well as psychological and pedagogical factors.One of the main reasons for reducing the effectiveness of mnemonic activity of children with mental retardation is a violation of cognitive activity, inability of children to rationally organize and monitor their work, and to use memorization techniques.
But despite on the presence of a significant range of disorders, children with developmental delays have sufficiently high potential of intellectual development. With the help of targeted correctional work they can instill the necessary skills of mnemonic activity that allows to substantially compensate for their underdevelopment memory processes.
Accumulated diagnostic experience, as well as some issues of memory of children with mental retardation in preschool age correction suggests that some aspects of the problem require further development, in particular, the integrated use of methods of mnemonics and games in the educational process in preschool educational institution.
Time initiated remedial work has great importance in the formation of all types of memory of children with developmental disabilities. The earlier remedial work is initiated, the better its results.
An important direction in this work is the formation of a positive emotional attitude to the problem solving.
It is necessary to direct the teaching work with this category for the overall social welfare.
When organizing the correctional and developmental work, you must take into consideration the peculiarity and deficits of the various functions and skills.
An illustrative material is retained in the memory better than verbal.
Teachers that work with children with mental retardation need to remember that the causes of low productivity of all types of memory in this category of children is the weakness of their mental activity, reduced cognitive activity, the lack of any self-regulation.
To overcome the difficulties in the formation of an arbitrary memory, the following methods can be used by any regulation:
- To organize the activities of the child, paying attention to the performance of a specific task;
- Memorization instructions by explaining, repeating by an adult, and then the child;
- The inclusion of the child in action, the combination of instructions with showing them;
- The inclusion of a child in joint action with an adult;
- “The loss” is prevented by repeating an instruction by adults at each stage of the child's activities.
With the right approach to teaching, children are able to assimilate some mnemotechnics, mastering the techniques of logical memory.
Thus, time initiated correctional work on the development of memory of children of preschool age with mental retardation using mnemotechnics creates favorable conditions for the development of memory.
1. State Program for Education Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 (¹ 922ofFrebruary 1, 2010).
2. Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan "Kazakhstan way - 2050: Unified goal, common interests, common future" (January 17,2014 ).
3. Age and pedagogical psychology: Reader: Textbook for students of secondary pedagogical educational institutions. /Composed byI.V. Dubrovinà, A.M. Prikhozhan, V.V. Zatsepin. – Ì.:Publishing Center Academy, 2008.