Pedagogical Sciences/2. Problems of training of specialists

 

M. Ed., Miller E. V.

D. Serikbaev East Kazakhstan state technical university, Kazakhstan

The professional orientation of students

 

The Professional orientation is a part of the general orientation of the individual and is the combination of motivational structures (interests, needs, aptitudes, aspirations, etc.) related to professional activity and human influence, in particular, on the choice of profession, the desire to work on it, and the satisfaction of professional activities.

The general thrust describes the scope of all the needs and interests of the person, its system of relations to reality, to others, to himself. The professional orientation describes only the needs and interests of the individual, which are associated with the behavior of the person in choosing a profession, with a future professional activity.

Professional orientation for every individual is completely particular specific direction due to the individuality of the individual. That is, for each individual vocational orientation has a special aspect of the overall orientation that characterizes the sphere of needs and interests of the person, which developed in the course of his individual life experience and is associated with behavior when choosing their future careers.

The professional orientation is one of the parties the general orientation. It has great social and moral significance, shows man's attitude to a chosen profession, to people engaged in relevant employment, to the respective spheres of production.

Composition in professional orientation can be divided into motivational, emotional-volitional and cognitive spheres.

The first necessary condition for the formation of professional orientation consists in the emergence of selectively-positive man's relationship to the profession. Selective attitude to the profession often begins with the appearance of private motives related to individual parties of the content of certain activities, or with any of the attributes of a profession or the activity process. In several papers [1, 2, 3,] it is shown that the professional orientation is closely connected with the system of leading motives that determine the internal position of the individual. Only through the analysis of reasons on which is based the subjective attitude of person to the profession can be judged on its actual content. Thus, one of the forms of the professional orientation development is the enrichment of her motives; from the individual motive to a more complete and diversified system of motives [4].

We consider the motive as an internal force arising on the basis of the feelings and thoughts of the person and motivating him to one or another of the activities aimed at the satisfaction of his needs.

Emotional-volitional component of the professional orientation reflects primarily emotional attitude to the profession is manifested in satisfaction with the profession, preparation for future professional activity, interest in the profession and specialty, and the inclination to achieve successful results, despite the difficulties encountered, awareness of their abilities to professional activity, preparation to it.

Cognitive component of the professional orientation is associated with the focus on the object of activity, with the awareness of the importance and necessity of his activities (future and present professional training). It manifests itself in awareness, in professional plans of students in the awareness of the public importance of the profession, in the realization of the objectives of the study all subjects in preparation for professional activity.

Based on the analysis of different points of view available in the literature concerning the structure of professional orientation, we believe it is possible to allocate its structural basis, which is the system of needs, interests, desires, tendencies, motives, and knowledge and skills.

Professional interest is one of the most important components of the professional orientation. It provides more productive, less tiring, require less tension, mental activity. Interest is included in group of personal properties, the main feature of which is activating of the educational and vocational activities of the individual. It is in the interest of subjective orientation [4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and others].

The source of activity, stimulating interest are human needs. The need can become the basis for the formation of interest, but the interest can turn into the need of the person [9]. At the same time, the need is not always a matter of interest. A common feature of interest stands emotional attitude to the object of interest if the interests of the people are reflected in their needs; it must be the need for social work: being reflected in the minds of men, it manifests itself in the form of professional interests. The main factor of formation of professional interests are social environment of the individual, the nature of the professional interests implies the existence of selective, emotional and volitional activity of the subject towards object reality.

Cognitive activity as valuable and complex personal formation can emerge in the activities of teaching and is a preparatory stage of autonomy [9].

The emergence and development of the professional interest implies not only cognitive, but also emotional and volitional processes of the individual.

A sense of satisfaction from the performed work, pride in the profession, the joy of success, employment growth is accompanied by the activity of the student, if done with interest. This activity leads the student to a new cognitive activity, to the desire to increase their knowledge and skills. Professional interest is characterized by the presence of a strong-willed readiness to overcome difficulties arising both during training and during professional activity. On the one hand, this is due to the ability to quickly and confidently make decisions, to insistence and endurance for performing tasks; on the other hand - initial incentives as the source of motivation (incentives) to activities; thirdly - personal or public needs, implemented in the system of motives of activity. Understanding the needs of both the initial motives (incentives or objective) in the work reveals the genetic aspect of motivation.

This is the general view of the dynamics of the professional orientation. The transformation needs the motive associated with the manifestation of the will and emotional processes. At the same time needs become a form of manifestation of nature. Satisfaction diagnostic, including vocational and educational needs leads to the activation of cognitive activity.

References:

1.     Ignatenko L. I.  Extended abstract of PhD dissertation (Pedagogy). Odessa, 1990. (in Russian)

2.     Zhirnov V. I. Extended abstract of PhD dissertation (Pedagogy). Chelyabinsk, 1991. (in Russian)

3.     Kovalev V. I. Motivy povedeniya i deyatelnosti. [Motives of behavior and activity] Moscow: Institute of Psychology, 1998. 191 p. (in Russian)

  1. Shavir P. A. Psihologiya professionalnogo samoopredeleniya v rannej yunosti [Psychology of professional self-determination in early adolescence] Moscow, 1981. 95p. (in Russian)
  2. Kovalev A. G. Psihologiya lichnosti [Psychology of personality] Moscow, 1970. 391 p. (in Russian)
  3. Aleksandrov T. N., Poletaeva L. A., Sabaneeva G. I. Opredelenie soderzhaniya obrazovaniya s ispolzovaniem modeli deyatelnosti specialista [Determination of the content of education using the model of the expert]. The Way of improving the content of higher technical education. Ufa, 1984. 19-30 pp.
  4. Leontiev, A. N. Deyatelnost. Soznanie. Lichnost. [Activity. Consciousness. Personality] Moscow, 1977. 304 p. (in Russian)
  5. Kryagzhde S. P. Upravlenie formirovaniem professionalnyx interesov. [Managing the formation of professional interests]. Questions of psychology. 1985, No 3. 23-30 pp. (in Russian)
  6. Harlamov L.F. Deyatelnostnyj podhod k obucheniyu: put k prochnym znaniyam [Activity approach to learning: the Path to lasting knowledge] Soviet pedagogy, 1986. No 4. 62-67 pp. (in Russian)