KazNU named after Al-Farabi, Faculty of Law of the State
and Theory and History of Law,
Professor of the Department of Constitutional Law and
AdministrativLaw, Candidate of Legal Sciences,
KazNU named after Al-Farabi, Faculty of Law of the State
and Theory and History of Law, Master of 1 course of the Chair of Constitutional Law and Administrative Law
Thoughts of Mirzhakip Dulatuly about Zemstvo
Annotation: In the article will be considered local self-government, that is, effective ways of organizing zemstvo.According to MirzhakipDulat, the most effective way to solve local social problems is zemstvo form of self-management experience. Through zemstvo you can educate the people, and manage the school business well.In addition, local authorities can quickly resolve the relationship between people. The opinion that zemstvo is the best form of local government is not only shared by MirzhakipDulatuly, and all the figures of Alash.
Keywords: Alash,zemstvo, Government, law, administration, constitution, people, local government.
We all know that at the beginning of the 20th century Alash's figures mourned for the Kazakhs, felt all the pain and were patriots of the nation.Each figure of Alash worked hard for the country of the Kazakhs and for his future.One of them, MirzhakipDulatuly.In the political and legal positions MirzhakypDulatuly is spoken from the position of the state, and many problems state-knowledge. One of these problems, for zemstvo, MirzhakipDulatulydevoted several articles.He speaks of the need zemstvo: «Now what needs is compensated by zemstvo?Zemstvo pay attention to the following: educational and training issues, protection from water and fire, human medicine and veterinary medicine, help in difficult times and in hunger, road repairs, opening of postal points and other affairs managed by the people»» [1, 110 p.].Zemstvo actually born in the kingdom of Russia, is a form of self-government of the people. Zemstvo in Russia has addressed the needs of both social education and health among non-Russians.The inadequacy of enlightenment among the people, the lack of literacy, accusing zemstvoMirzhakiDulatov explains this way: «the cause of ignorance of our people at this time is not because of the flight from education, but from the absence of schools.If the zemstvo is opened, if the Kazakh can manage his own business, we will not remain in that form.We will enter the list of educated, gifted and talented.Even if the number of Kazakhs is less, while they are educated, one can not say that they can not live like other people. We have a saving:«Strong will win one, but clever thousands» For example, in the world there are 11 million Jews: thanks to their talent and perseverance, they are not inferior to other peoples.If the Kazakhs saw one part of the thousands of harassments that the Jews saw, they would say goodbye to life long ago.Despite their small number, they compete with strong nations and enter the top ten.Is this not an example for the untalented Kazakh people?» ?» [1, 121-122 pp.].At the beginning of the 19th century, one of the reasons why the Kazakh people did not support a healthy lifestyle was not allowed to rule themselves in this area.As a compassionate to the health of his people, MyrzhakypDulatov could not get through this problem.We can understand this by thinking: «Health of the people».Not all of the collected money for the zemstvo collection is spent on digging.People need all kinds of needs.All in half.The first of many is the prosperity of the people. Do not just say «health is the first wealth».If a person is healthy, he will be cheerful, without fear.Some people are worried about poverty, a widow, some about loneliness, or the orphan, but when they begin to get sick something then they understand that in this world there is nothing of valuable health.How important a person is to his health, he is sick or healthy, when his mood and his dwelling in general depend on it, also his health is important to the people.The word "person" and "people" have one meaning, if each person is happy, will be rich, healthy, will be educated then the people will be like that.People are not like that like a stone, or mountains, people call a lot of persons who are connected one after another.That’s why needs of each person and the need of the people are the same.» [1, 128 p.].Another problem that solves zemstvoproblem of the economy.Directly linking this with the "zemstvo" MirzhakypDulatuly explains: "If there is a zemstvo, the first thing we need to pick up is the education, education and economy of the people.Collected money from the people under the "zemsky collection" will be spent on everything the Kazakhs need, not a single coin will be distracted, will go to their own needs.Despite the fact that we are called people caring for animals, we do not know anything about cattle breeding, about breeding, about preventing infectious diseases.Kazakhs are only happy that they have increased the number of animals.What is the use even if hooves are many, and the price is low?If they did not mow enough grass in the summer, and in the cold winter animals have nowhere to spend the night, Kazakh animals in winter will lose weight, and in the summer they will depreciate.They will die because of the cold storm.If the ice goes, and they can not fight back, they will die.The reason for all this, the Kazakhs still do not know well how to control the cattle, and no one has been trained in this matter.And the government does not help much in this.» [1, 135 ð.].MirzaқypDulatuly in his article tries to connect the low level of literacy about the zemstvo, why the Zemstvo does not open up among people explaining this way: «we want to say to the Kazakhs the following: in the territories where the Kazakhs live, it will open on earth, but for now let them understand what this is, they will be ready to accept, get used to, and look for good sides.Zemstvo should not go unnoticed, as one of the orders that come out within a year.If the Kazakhs do not know what the zemstvo is, neighboring states where the zemstvo has already been opened,will be slandered and ignored: «Kazakhs are ignorant, Kazakhs do not understand and can not manage the zemstvo».If there is anyone who wants to know about the zemstvo, we wrote before that and will write in future.» [1, 138 ð.].Creating a trade for development and prosperity among people is always associated with the exchange of information, and the rapid delivery of goods.According to Abai: «where there is knowledge, you can build a palace, and receive letters from far away places» and the problem with the mail to share news, he says in his statements to the people: «about how uncomfortable otsustvii mail we learned because of the appearancenewspaper-magazines, books among Kazakh teachers.Because the couriers of the rural municipals go to the city only once a month, sometimes even less, enrollees know only one in a thousand, and are not notified of the latest news that occurs in the world.Until this day there was not a single person who cared for the Kazakhs, mourned for their condition, and was ready to take this responsibility into their own hands.
If the people took everything into their own hands, would fill it where necessary, and remove it would be unnecessary.If the Kazakhs know what a zemstvo is, if they know what it is to take over the government, then they would understand the difference between the old and the new government.» [1, 140 á.].Known Kazakh poet MirzhakypDulatuly in his collection of articles on the zemstvo consists of solving other social problems of self-government among the Kazakhs.Moving zemstvo forward, MirzhakypDulatuly wanted to deliver the Kazakhs their own power.
1. Dulatuly M. Six-volume collection of works 2 – volume.: Wise words,Literary criticismandresearch articles /compiled by: G. Dulatova,
S. Imanbaeva. – Almaty: Mektep, 2013. – 392 p., pic.