Kramar I. Iu.
Ternopil Ivan Pulíiui National TechnicalUniversity
RESTRUCTURING AS A METHOD OF SMALL ENTERPRISESí DEVELOPMENT
The use of restructuring as the method of development of small enterprises has certain advantages, because such enterprises are deprived of inertance, bureaucratism and clumsiness.
Thatís why before starting the use of modern business technologies on domestic enterprises, they must be properly adapted to the conditions of domestic business, mentality of small enterprises proprietors. The new level of business foresees high-quality, first of all, the change of management principles.
Restructuring of small enterprises allows to pass to the high-quality new level of business organization. It is directed, first of all, on alteration of control system, on a revision and rethinking of principles of doing business. Restructuring is the only method of mobilization of internal resources for small enterprises as they do not have the opportunity to attract enough investments for the technical rearmament of production. It should be noted that restructuring of small enterprises is difficult method of development for them because it requires the change of the way of thinking of proprietors of the enterprise, who in Ukraine got used to occupy defensive position, protect the business from total power control from various supervisory bodies, violations of businessmen rights, from a bribery and corrupted officials.
Innovative alteration of control system during restructuring of small enterprise is done for formalization of uncreative, constantly executable functions to be free of administrative resource for business processes. It should be remembered that alteration of control system is not done only to alteration of organizational structure of management.
The aim of restructuring is to create valuable subjects of entrepreneurial activity capable effectively to function in the conditions of passing to the market economy and to produce competitive products which follow the requirements of commodity markets. Thus, procedure of restructuring can be defined as a complex of measures directed proceeding in proof technical, economic and financial viability of enterprises.
The project of restructuringís measures is developed in case of deciding to restructuring the enterprise. It must contain the following:
- an economic ground of the necessity of restructuring;
- suggestions in relation to the methods of restructuring;
- costs on restructuring and sources of their coverage;
- measures of decision of the financial, social and other problems related to realization of the enterpriseís restructuring project.
Restructuring of enterprise may include such measures:
- replacement of the leader of the enterprise;
- dissociating of the unprofitable structural subdivisions from the enterprise;
- sale of superfluous capital assets and equipment;
- splitting of large enterprises to small ones;
- partial or complete privatization or closing;
- starting the bankruptcy procedure etc.
In the process of grounding different kinds, forms and degrees of restructuring it is necessary to analyse technical, economical and financial situation. First question on which it is necessary to find an answer is to define the type of products which an enterprise will produce after restructuring for proceeding in the potential and normal functioning. The analysis of all directions of enterpriseís activities is preceded on the criterion of competitiveness of products (price, quality), market part structures of costs and profitability. First of all such alternatives are analysed in such cases:
- if profitability of production of certain goods can not be picked up thread because of its low quality, out-of-date technology, high prime cost, low level of the †production capacity use that makes economies of scale impossible etc., then a production is necessary to be stopped;
- for resources which are free (production capacities, "know-how", administrative and labour potential), the new perspective types of products are determined, their production will provide necessary profitability of the inlaid capital taking into account the cost of restructuring;
- if a production can not be renewed even with the restructured technical requirements and retrained personnel then an enterprise is the subject for closing, an uneconomical and out-of-date equipment and assets are to be sold, and floorspaces have to be leased.
Any strategy of restructuring is necessary to be strengthened by measures after three basic directions:
- decrease of costs and increase of production and labour efficiency, strengthening the control after productsí quality;
- modernisation or replacement of equipment; in most cases modernisation is more advantageous on the criterion of costs, and from the point of view of enterpriseís development strategy;
- an input of a new technology, expediency of which must be carefully reasonable.
So restructuring foresees the analysis of financial and economic activities of the enterprise that must contain the estimation of total value of enterpriseís property, assets and passives of its balance sheet, their structure, analysis of debts and other liabilities and calculation of liquidity and solvency ratios which characterize the level of the financial state of the enterprise.
On the basis of data analysis the conclusion is made in relation to liquidation of enterprise through the filing for its bankruptcy or announcement of† restructuring.
Thus, restructuring is the complex introduction of changes in enterpriseís ††management (intended) sent† to† the increase its efficiency and competitiveness, adjusted of concrete subject of the economy† to† the changed† terms and rules.