История/3.История науки и техники.
Candidate of Historical
Sciences G.E. Ibragimova
L. N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan
About the innovative development of the CIS
As it is known, 2010 has been declared the Year of Science and Innovation in the CIS; in connection with this, much attention has been given to the theoretical and practical aspects of cooperation in the sphere of innovation. The effectiveness of innovation cooperation of the CIS directly depends on the state of national innovation systems. The study of these problems is of the applied character since the results of the study reflect the positive and negative trends in the innovative development of the CIS countries and determine the prospects for the development in the region in the innovation- integration course. The relevance of the topic is enhanced by the current global economic crisis; the output of which can be associated with innovation activity.
By the present time in selected CIS countries common strategic trends, goals and objectives of innovative development have been developed. At the same time, the first practical steps in the field of innovation development are being made.
For example, in Moldova there is the growth of investments into science and innovation. Compare; in 2008 in this area 0.7% of GDP were allocated, in 2009 - 0.8 % of gross domestic product or about 400 million lei (about 30 million Euros). It is assumed that in 2012 this figure will be 1% . However, in comparison with more developed innovative nations such financial investments are not enough to ensure that the economy would be considered innovative. For example, according to the U.S. in 2009 the volume of the aid to the innovative projects already exceeds more than 4% of GDP. In general, in the CIS costs of innovation are only 4.9% of total production costs .
In the framework of state support for innovation in the Republic of Kazakhstan some development institutions have been established. They are: the National Innovation Fund, Investment Fund of Kazakhstan, Development Bank, the Center for Marketing and Analytical Research, Centre for Engineering and Technology Transfer, technology parks and business-incubators to promote innovation projects. In Belarus, for the first half of 2011 for innovative development program seven innovative companies were created, driven figure is made to produce innovative products - 12.7 %. Azerbaijan is working to create regional innovation zones, where highly intelligent products will be produced, particularly, software products. In Russia the project of innovation town (innograd) "Skolkovo" has been launched .
However, there are more disadvantages and problems than achievements in the innovation sector of the CIS countries. For example, in Ukraine the average innovation index does not exceed 5 %, while the standard is no less than 15% . Turkmenistan is at the early stage of the development of the innovation activity basis. Thus, now the country is establishing a technology park, dedicated to the research on important scientific topics of innovative character . In Kyrgyzstan, the financing of science is about 0.1% of GDP. Azamat Dikambayev, the representative of Analytical Consortium "Perspectiva", notes it is not time to speak about system innovation processes in the Kyrgyz Republic .
In order to call the economy innovative, products in a production volume must make no less than 15%. At the present time even in Russia this index reaches only 0,5% . According to the Ministry of economic development, in Russia in 2008 9,6% of enterprises developed and inculcated technological innovations, while in Germany– 73%, in Belgium – 58%, in Estonia – 47%,in Czech– 41% .
A. Zolotukhina’s article shows the comparative analysis of innovation potential of the CIS and developed foreign countries . According to the data of the author, the number of registered patents in Research work in the U.S. is over 83 thousand units, in Finland - more than two thousand, and in the CIS - less than 1 thousand units.
The share of innovative active companies in the percentage to the total number of registered companies in the USA comprises more than 30 %, in Finland -to 50%, in the CIS - about 14 %. As you can see, the gap in some aspects is more than 80%.
Among the CIS countries in the ranking of "Global Innovation Index" (2011), Moldova ranked the 39th place, Russia – the 56th , Ukraine - the 60th , Armenia – the 69th , Kazakhstan – the 84th , Kyrgyzstan – the 85th , Azerbaijan – the 88th , Tajikistan – the 116th place. The leaders are Switzerland, Sweden, and Singapore . "The main trump of Moldova is a dynamic system of protection of intellectual property (patent, copyright protection), productivity, and exports of creative values, which allowed it to take the fifth place in the world for innovation effectiveness section" - INSEAD study says. The authors emphasize that "Moldova and Sweden are the only European countries that are in the top innovation effectiveness by applying innovative ability in practice" .
The data presented on the status of the theoretical and the practical implementation of innovative development in some CIS countries is sufficient to identify laws in this sphere. All CIS countries are at the stage of theoretical study key aspects of innovation development and the beginning of the practical steps in the field of innovation. Not a bad theoretical elaboration of certain aspects of innovation cooperation of the CIS countries does not rule out the weakness of the practical implementation of the theory. The main reasons that hinder the practical implementation of innovation in CIS countries are the following: lack of trust of a society to innovations, not involving business into the innovation activity, poor funding, imperfect mechanism for the implementation of innovation, the gap between science and industry, lack of systematic and integrated approach to innovation, low innovation capacity of enterprises, the lack of personnel, more focusing on raw material economy than on the innovative development, lack of markets for system innovation processes, disinterest in the potential of innovation activities in its activation, etc. The result is a lack of development of national innovation systems in CIS countries.
It is clear that the problems associated with the development and implementation of innovations in the CIS countries, are quite similar. In our view, the solution of innovation issues should be approached comprehensively. To begin, apparently, it is necessary to solve the important task - from building an innovation culture and innovative behavior in the CIS countries. Since the innovation culture is a historically constituted, stable system of norms, rules and techniques of innovation in various spheres of a society, which is characteristic for a given socio-cultural community. That is why we should not hope for a quick, rapid development of innovative processes. It's no secret that in the CIS countries there is no demand for innovation from the business. This suggests that innovative behavior in the CIS has not become more natural, massively popular, strategic type of behavior yet. It is necessary to develop innovative thinking. In this respect, higher education institutions can play a great role. In this vein, important are innovative proposals of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, according to which innovation in education is becoming an applied nature, the nature of scientific and practical development, which is funded from the budget. Thus, Kazakhstan has been developing and implementing a comprehensive strategy for science and innovation.
In the formation of an innovative culture, innovative thinking and behavior in the CIS countries tasks of tactical plan require attention. So, important is the constant monitoring of innovation, developing a mechanism to attract investment in innovation cooperation, improvement and harmonization of investment legislation in some countries of the CIS, formation of small and medium enterprises to introduce product innovation, introducing high technologies in large companies, encouraging entrepreneurs to the CIS conversion to the innovation track, learning, forecasting innovation development, development of models of innovation policy, the establishment of a coordinating center for innovation.
Accounting and correcting deficiencies that exist in national innovation systems and the field of innovative cooperation between CIS countries, the realization of program documents in practice, study and implementation of suggestions of the experts to improve the innovative sphere are the prerequisites to create a market for innovative products, with which the CIS countries could enter the world market.
In the globalization some CIS countries, with their undeveloped, low technology, commodity-dependent economies are unable to take their rightful place in the world community, and this fact causes a trend of integration with an innovative emphasis on post-Soviet space.
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