Kazakh National Pedagogical University after Abai
Pedagogical model of development of characteristics of an individual in informational and technological activity in the process of preparation of lawyers.
Educational process is characterized by a purpose to achievement of which it is directed, by the activity of a teacher and interaction of teacher with student. Interaction of teachers with the students is implemented by using various methods, forms and means of organization of lessons. From the pedagogical point of view it is an interaction which has a significant impact on the content and form of independent work of students, during which, mainly, the basic skills of future specialist is formed. Analysis of application of informational educational technologies in the education process, which were carried out by specialists have shown that the most effective way to achieve the goal of this process is to create informational and technological system, which integrates the capabilities of traditional and new information technologies in the area of education. Such system has to accompany the student from preschool age to the moment of his/her achievement of professional level and so on. This system can be characterized as an informational environment in which one has to “live” during all period of education. More over, such environment has to enclose organizational and methodical, psychological and pedagogical components in order to ensure the effectiveness of its application in the process of education.
System of professional education of legal sphere as an institute of socialization assumes the development of future lawyer as a person and individual in informational and technological activity in the following aspects:
· Intellectual development;
· Emotional development;
· Development of abilities to handle stress;
· Development of assertiveness and self-acceptance;
· Development of positive relation towards the world and acceptance of others;
· Development of self-consistency;
· Development of motivation of learning as an element of motivation of self-development .
Education as a process includes two parts: teaching, during which the system of knowledge, skills, experience of activity and learning (student’s activity) is being passed (transformed), i.e. gaining of an experience through its perception, understanding, transformation and application. Application of model of assessment of undergraduate’s professional activity is necessary on the assumptions that the outdoor environment has a demand for young specialist who possesses with:
· Specific set of knowledge (theoretical preparation and empirical knowledge);
· Skills (gained within state standards of education, and the skills which are required by the changing market and social processes);
· Project experience and experience of creative work;
· Experience in relations: administration work, social adaptation, self-administration and management;
· Experience in independent business activity, possessing with high technological methods in specific area of activity which can be interesting for potential or real client. To this attributive characteristics of competence (professionalism) we can also include informative and cognitive, communicative, common cultural, axiological and ideological, linguistic, cultural studying, verbal, sociocultural, regulative behavioral, esthetic, ecological, family and domestic characteristics.
If to speak about the significance of separate blocks of attributive characteristics of competence, we need to mention that such a big importance for the modern labor market is based upon demand for absolute specific qualities of knowledge of students – future specialists in legal science and specific ethical norms in systems of interrelations “human – human”, “human – society”, “human – nature”. In fact we are speaking about the necessity to pay a huge attention to the forming of these qualities of knowledge and achieve educational goals through them. It is about “depth” and “consistency”. Moral categories “freedom” (operative component “purposefulness” and “honor”) and “humanism” (operative “striving for freedom” and “respect to a human”) are the priority aims of upbringing in the educational institution, adequate emotional response to which ensures stable spiritual order of the student in gaining knowledge and experience of future profession of lawyer.
In this way, deviant behavior of the person as a social psychological and pedagogical problem, the informative, communicative, world viewing and regulative behavioral characteristics of the person become a block of attributive characteristics of competence, which conforms to the modern model of professional preparation of a specialist in legal science. Most of models presented by foreign scientists enclose a term “key competences”, which was entered into the scientific language in the beginning of 1990 by International Labor Organization. This term is explained as a capability of the person to mobilize gained knowledge during his/her professional activity, and to use general methods of performing actions. It is also emphasized that key competences ensure universality which says that key competences can not be highly specialized [2;118].
Results of long-term investigations are fixed within the recommendations of Council of Europe and stated in five basic provisions, acquired level of which became an inarguable criterion of the quality of education received. In this particular case, we are speaking about political, social competences, which relate to the living in political-cultural society, which define levels of oral and writing skills, which is connected to origination of informational society, which realizes the ability and wish to learn through whole life, and which serve as main continuous professional preparation. All the achievements in modern professional pedagogics are associated with the following names – S.Y. Batysheva, E.F. Klimova, N.V. Kuzminov, A.K. Markova, N.F. Talyzina and others. Most of authors working with the model of a specialist accentuate two main components: professional knowledge and personal skills. While describing “professional” component of the model (not including qualification requirements developed within the state standards), most scientists use the following characteristics of competence: special, intellectual, social legal, intellectual initiative, self-organization, self-regulation. [2;186]. In our thinking, it is reasonable to divide components of model into to groups by personal qualifications: general, development of which is important for each undergraduate, and special, which would be a differential peculiarity of specialists in each specific profession. In our opinion, the selection of personal qualifications which compose first group should be implemented basing on the following criteria:
· Focus to creation of a system of moral values; self-improvement, self-fulfillment and self-development; development of communicative competence;
· Objectiveness in assessment of effectiveness of their development during educational process.
The followings are the fundamentals for selection of skills of person, integration of which has to lead to formation of special professional qualifications:
· Creation of motivational, intellectual, substantial, instrumental components of professional self-improvement, self-fulfillment and self-development;
· Forming up a system of basic knowledge and integral world image and its derivative laws;
· Development of motivation and toolkits of creative (productive, heuristic) thinking;
· Formation of skills of professional communication and data handling.
In the process of preparation of a lawyer we are facing variety of tasks which he/she will have to solve: sometimes legal cases can differ in many nuances even from typologically similar ones. Sometimes it is not enough to apply for own experience and knowledge gained from special literature. It is not an occasion that a high level of professionalism includes skills in using own original methods of work, to risk reasonably, demonstrate intuition, but at the same time all your activity should stay within legal regulations. Using legal power in the name of law leaves its own mark raising the responsibility for the consequences of actions for we mainly have to deal with human lives, searching for truth and finding it [3;57].
Considering the above stated, basing on analysis of literature which reflects the results of investigations of professional activity of lawyers and peculiarities in preparation of specialists of legal specialization, we have created the model of lawyer – a man, who by his duty and call of heart stands at the edge of social and economical problems of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Picture 1. Model of preparation of competent specialist in legal sphere in pedagogical universities of juridical specialization.
2. Markova A.K. Psychology of professionalism. – M.: Novaya Shkola, 1996.-C.118
3. Markova A.K. Psychology of professionalism. – M.: Novaya Shkola, 1996.-C.186
4. Information technologies in education, management and scientific researches. Materials of scientific methodical conference “University science – to the region”. Editor in charge V.A. Shapovalova. – Stavropol: Publishing house SGU, 1999.-C.57