Современные информационные технологии/1.Компьютерная инженерия
Ph.D. A.M. Milenin, Ph.D. S.M. Skofenko, M.S. Ubaitaieva
The study of CAD elements on junior courses of technical universities
In the modern economic space, there is an active development of computer technologies related to joint work, the supply of components. By means of systems of automatic designing (CAD) the development of drawings is carried out, three-dimensional modeling of a product and assembly process is carried out, the technological documentation is made, etc. There comes the awareness of the need to introduce CAD in the daily work of designers. At the same time, CAD is often expected more than it can give, hoping to get an immediate result without putting any effort. From the system, in addition to targeting specific characteristics, the ability to model complex 3D objects and assemblies is required.
Basic CAD can be conditionally divided into three classes.
Low-level systems are systems of the AutoCAD type, which are, in fact, an electronic culmination, which practically does not affect the technology of design and technological preparation itself.
Medium-level systems are systems (Solid Works, Solid Edge, CADMEX, T-FLEX, COMPASS) that allow to fully implement 3D modeling and create mathematical models adequate to real physical models. Here, the user receives all the advantages of three-dimensional design: topological accuracy, the ability to analyze three-dimensional models and use in the preparation of control programs. These systems allow you to extract real opportunities from computer design.
Top-level systems are systems that provide the entire product creation cycle-from the conceptual idea to implementation without the additional use of external applications, which provides a single environment for product development and support for parallel engineering, where all project participants can work simultaneously. Such systems should have sufficiently powerful parametrization tools that allow to make changes to complex structures in large assemblies, to have the possibility of constructing complex associative connections, as well as certain flexibility, since the product is constantly changing in the design process.
The desire to get competent answers to the questions posed above makes it necessary to train engineers in engineering universities who are familiar with the methods of computer design and modeling. The basic disciplines that provide training for such specialists include engineering and computer graphics.
It is necessary to note the desire of the graduating departments to orient students to study those CAD (Solid Works, ADEM, CATIA, etc.), with which they can later meet in production.
All of them are classified according to the accepted classification to products of the "average" and "heavy" class. This means that for their use requires a technique with very significant computing resources, and for their development - considerable time and serious effort. CAD systems are inherently complex systems. The change of computer-aided design systems occurs quickly, within 2 to 3 years. Thus, during the training in a technical university, the future engineer will have to retrain, at least twice.
Considering that the computerization of fundamental engineering disciplines is one of the key problems of the educational process of the higher vocational school, and the fact that universal CAD is a pedagogical potential, there is a need to find ways to use this potential for teaching students in graphic disciplines. The use of CAD allows them to more easily and quickly master the basics of computer modeling and graphics, more consciously and deeply understand the classical engineering geometry and graphics in a time of shortage. For the most effective use of design CAD modules for graphical training of students among the functional capabilities of these systems, we identified those that, provided a thoughtful design of the learning process could be useful from various angles.
When implementing computer graphics in the educational process, you have to opt for only one graphic software product. This is primarily due to the minimum number of hours allocated to the study of computer graphics. Therefore, for a deeper training of specialists who own modern technologies in the field of design, a common policy of general engineering and special departments is needed to introduce CAD into the educational process.
When studying the methods of implementing CAD, such training programs can be CAD, less demanding computer resources and easier to implement educational technical projects. The experience of the Department of Descriptive Geometry, Engineering and Computer Graphics showed that for the development of AutoCAD, students of 1st and 2nd courses need 2-3 pairs of study time. A small amount of installation allows a student with a home computer to install it at home.
Another compendium that claims to study CAD methods is the Compass system. The size of its installation package is somewhat larger. Together with this, and the possibilities for him are somewhat wider, which allows the student to learn parametric design and modeling.