Kopytkov Denis, Assoc. Prof., Ph. D.
Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University
Determination of the social quality standards
in urban passenger transportation
The sociological surveys to evaluate the passenger transportation quality has demonstrated that the transportation process efficiency is greatly influenced by the transport system quality indicators, which are, in our opinion, the social standards for the quality of service presented by urban passenger transportation. These indicators should be developed at the stage of planning and implemented into the process of the urban transportation operational activities. When substantiating the service quality social standards, it is necessary to proceed from the measurement of the trip condition impact on passengers and their response to a transport situation.
Since the urban passenger transport ensures the delivery of labor to places of employment and the necessary living, working and leisure conditions for the population, the result of its functioning is to reduce the time and psychophysical burden that the passengers encounter during the trip . Hence, the optimal level of service should correspond to a minimum of total costs for the transportation system and losses in the country's economy from the transport fatigue.
The task of finding a rational quality level is to determine those most important indicators (vehicle capacity rate, passenger's time consumption), under which the service is most effective from a social and economic point of view.
We believe that the social standard of passenger service quality is to achieve with a minimum of the objective function
where – annual operating costs of the i-th urban passenger transport mode, UAH;
– annual investment of the i-th urban passenger transport mode, UAH;
– annual losses due to transport fatigue per one passenger taking a labor trip in conditions of the i-th urban passenger transport mode, UAH;
– annual number of passengers taking i-th labor trips, pass.
At a quality level (the value of the standard), the total operating costs and losses of society reach a minimum. This value of the transport system parameter corresponds to the quality standard. The remaining values must be compared with the standard on the resource supply. This approach corresponds to the current thoughts on the resource efficiency of urban passenger transport  and allows planning the capital investments in the development of the urban passenger transport system.
In the approach above, a relatively new feature is the quantitative assessment of transport fatigue. When calculating the losses of the country's economy from transport fatigue in the industrial production, it is advisable to take into account the cost of working time, the workplace adaptation time (possibly, as a vehicle capacity rate and travel time function), and the number of passengers to be transported to the places of employment within a time window. The cost of working time is determined via the passenger transportation cost and the trip parameters, which have a significant impact on the passenger's functional state.
In accordance with the trip condition assessment by passengers [3, 4], these conditions are perceived as free when the capacity is 1.7 people and very close – at 6.8 people per m2 of a vehicle floor space. From a survey of passengers it was established that 3.5 people per m2 is a critical value, and then the conditions of the trip are perceived as very close, in which the transport fatigue intensively increases along with increasing the travel time. It was also stated that the transport fatigue is quantitatively estimated by the work adaptation time reaching a maximum with the travel time of 80 – 90 minutes.
Taking into account the above, in current conditions of the urban transportation operation, the further direction of the research is the unambiguous identification of the factors that influence the time of passenger adaptation and, as a result, the transport fatigue.
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2. Вдовиченко В.О. Формування сервісно-ресурсних умов сталості міського громадського пасажирського транспорту / В.О. Вдовиченко // Технологический аудит и резервы производства. – 2016. – № 6/2 (32). – C. 64– 69.
3. Awuah A. About Transport Fatigue as an Impact Factor on Workplace Productivity in Accra, Ghana / A. Awuah // Journal of Information Technology and Economic Development. – 2013. – No 4(1), pp. 9 – 25.
4. Grigorova T. Transport Fatigue Simulation of Passengers In Suburban Service // V. Dolya, T. Grigorova, Yu. Davidich / International Journal of Automation, Control and Intelligent Systems. – 2015. – No. 2. – pp. 47 – 50.