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Hodzhaniyazova Zhanar Togabeyevna

Taraz innovation and Humanities University


Natural resources in the economic development of Kazakhstan.

 

In the first decades of Soviet power (20 - 30 -ies of this century ), the Kazakh people , like all the other nations of the former Soviet Union went on the offensive on their age-old backwardness, led a determined struggle against poverty and underdevelopment. Already by 1940 the vast expanses of Kazakhstan were built dozens of major factories , cut through the veld new railway lines have grown large agricultural enterprises , has been intensive development of animal husbandry . All this allowed Kazakhstan on a large scale to supply the front and rear of the Soviet Union's military and strategic raw materials and food during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945gg . Kazakhstan manganese during the war in the factories of the Urals replaced Nikopol (Ukraine ), Karaganda coking coal , together with the Kuznetsk used in the ferrous metallurgy throughout the country , 9 out of every 10 bullets razivshih common enemy , cast from Kazakhstan's lead. As a result, Kazakhstan has become one of the leading industrial centers of the former Soviet Union, taking fourth place among the other republics of the production of industrial products. Along with this there emerged a variety of industries. For example, in 1991 the share of agricultural products accounted for 36 percent of total net product of material production in the country , industry - 31, building - 15, Transport and Communication - 10 , trade and services - 5 percent. In Kazakhstan during the Soviet period was intense work is the development of raw materials , as well as the extraction of minerals that have been prepared for removal. Were created by the powerful mining companies , which are almost all the years of working on the project or close to the project facilities , developing the infrastructure around them. However, all of the extracted products , as in the ore , and in metals , oil and gas exported from Kazakhstan without returning the profits , which was to be fully invested in the development of the social welfare of its people. For example, in 1991, the territory of Kazakhstan was removed 92 percent of refined copper list price 3711 rubles (about 620 U.S. dollars at the exchange rate at that time ) per tonne in the world price of U.S. $ 2,557 and 38.3 per cent produced in the country coal at wholesale price 17.25 rubles. when the world price of $ 32 per ton. And so on all kinds of products that shipped ( exported ) to other Soviet republics . Also in 1991, Kazakhstan by domestic production met only 42 percent of the sales of consumer goods in the territory. All this is evidence that Kazakhstan was formed and remained a supplier of raw materials in the Soviet economy . This is why Kazakhstan is still in many countries with so- called primary economy - mining and agriculture, but with a huge pantry of various minerals . However, for the sake of justice it is necessary to recognize that it was during the years of Soviet rule , Kazakhstan has become a major industrial and agricultural region , where they were created powerful centers of energy, metallurgy, fuel , chemical and engineering industries. It is a major producer of non-ferrous and ferrous metals , uranium, coal, oil , grain, livestock products. His company , in some years of Soviet power , which was the most favorable for the development of the economy of Kazakhstan , as well as for the production of some of its businesses produced ( mined ) is the number of products, which was much higher than the current level of production. Despite the serious decline in production has occurred in recent years , Kazakhstan is the largest producer of non-ferrous metals : in 2011, his company produced 88.5 million tons of lead, 255.6 thousand tons of refined copper , 169.2 thousand tons of zinc , 9 , 6 thousand tons of titanium sponge , 1024 tonnes of alumina , 3.3 million tonnes of bauxite and many other types of non-ferrous and rare earth metals. Kazakhstan also has significant agricultural capabilities. In 1992, agriculture accounted for 38% of the national income , while it was only used 16 % of the workforce that reflects the presence of a large-scale mechanization and the relative efficiency of agricultural production. Kazakhstan has been and remains the only country in the former Soviet Union , exporting grain. The best quality wheat - solid and strong her grades - produced in Kazakhstan . However, in Kazakhstan is one of the world's lowest average yield of grain and other crops , and livestock productivity . Along with the serious shortcomings in the conduct of agricultural production , there is need to take into account the significant and almost annual variations in the volume of its output depending on weather conditions. Agriculture of the republic unites 36.3 million of various agricultural enterprises and 30.8 thousand farms ( peasant ) farms . As suggested by some reputable scientists, when properly used , the land of Kazakhstan can feed more than a billion people. Kazakhstan is used as an intermediate zone for the large flow of natural gas from the Central Asian republics in Russia , and its natural gas without any processing forwards as in Russia , but not to its customers even in the same western region, where the gas is produced . And so now the main task for Kazakhstan was the need to improve the intra- ties, as well as the modernization of much of the existing infrastructure. Unfortunately, over the period of independence of Kazakhstan non-primary sectors of the economy were on the periphery of the interests of each of the governments of the Republic. As a result , we now have an agricultural , food processing and other industries remain underdeveloped . Yet the fact remains that Kazakhstan does not have a competitive non-oil economy. The current principle of an integrated economic development of Kazakhstan step by step - step by step." Primary sector gives rise to the development of other sectors - industrial , agricultural , industrial . He's in the event of any difficulties their support in terms of funding . However, the main focus is on the development of one particular industry for a specified period of time. It is interesting that the state , which were previously under similar conditions, which are the bulk properties of the negative examples . But these industries have received attention quite late. and it already looks like an attempt to catch up. possible to conclude from this that the speed with which Kazakhstan has entered a state of independence , led to a lack of time and attention , designed to create the conditions in which the market can flourish .

 

                              References

1. Elemesov KI Economic modeling and real politics . Kazakhstan : the economy and the life - 3 - 4 ,

2 . Kazakhstan : in facts and figures . - Almaty : Statistics, 2011

3 . Materials , " Interregional Center of Business Cooperation"