Kostanay National University named after Akhmet Baitursynov, Kazakhstan
UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCIENTIFIC TEXT ON THE BASIS OF THE LINGUISTICAL CONCEPT OF THE SEMANTIC FIELD.
In an educational process the basic type of scientific information is educational text (material of textbook, compendium of lecture). Pedagogical practice testifies that a narrow place in the process of educating is a law level of skills of work of students with educational texts. Many students suppose that their main aim is not acquisition of knowledge, and successful handing over of examination. Therefore, during work with educational texts students puff the task memorizing of text, but not his understanding. As a result students can repeat, learn by heart, "cram" for a time obtained information, but consciously the cannot always apply it for practical aims. extremely adverse perception of educational information without understanding it very accurately described M.E. Bershadski "knowledge and action without understanding can be formed only by rote memorization and blind imitation, and their vehicle becomes badly structured and systematic guide, where information is subject to rapid decay and distortion, and his actions did not make sense practically and extremely sensitive to any external influences".
As a result of the students' attitudes to learning content classes , textbook material from becoming their own system of thinking, do not expand and enrich it . In this case, it is not necessary to talk about converting the received information into knowledge , because knowledge is imperatively requires an understanding . Noting the role of understanding as the main condition for conversion contained in the text information into knowledge , S.B. Krimsky wrote: " meaningful or , in other words , the associated text in unity with its adequate understanding will be called in the semiotic aspect of knowledge".
Thus, there is a pronounced problem between information support of the educational process and the transformation of broadcast information in an ordered system of knowledge.
To identify the causes of students' difficulties in understanding the scientific information contained in the text of the tutorial, we conducted a survey of students of 1st year. The experiment involved 97 students enrolled in the Kazakh branch of all disciplines of the university. Students are asked to answer the question: "What, in your opinion, prevents the full understanding of the scientific text?" About half of the respondents as the main reason called presence in the text of scientific terminology.
Practice shows that the weak skills of concepts and terminology scientific apparatus is as follows: 1) Students know the definition of the term at the level of mechanical reproduction, as this knowledge is obtained through rote learning; 2) the students do not see the difference between the meaning of the term and the meaning of concepts; 3) the students are not able to give a concise definition of the concept; 4) students "do not know" terms that previously studied in the classroom other courses; 5) etymologically related terms are remain in the minds of students fragmentary.
It is obvious that the solution to this problem in the learning process necessary to make adjustments of harmonized standards. To do this, in our opinion, it is necessary to improve the method of formation of students' scientific concepts and terminology base. For this purpose, it is necessary to consider what thing constitutes a scientific text.
The peculiarity of the scientific text is the extensive use of it in terms denoting their terms. This is due to the fact that in any science developed his own specialized language. Scientific terms - it's mostly words of Greek and Latin origin, which greatly complicates the understanding of their meaning.
Didactic opportunities to improve understanding of the process of scientific texts on the basis of the formation of concepts and terminology base due to the introduction to the science known researchers in the field of psycholinguistics , A.R. Luria and O.S. Vinogradova concept of "semantic field" . The phenomenon of " semantic field" consists in the fact that it entered into a multi-dimensional objective contents as if in a single word . In this case, it covers a very extensive "plastic language." "The semantic field" forms a complex multi-dimensional relationships of meaning of the word to other lexical units of language (words, phrases) ; itself as "the semantic field" of a word includes all the words and phrases that may be related to the word in different kinds of semantic relationships (relationships of meaning related cognate words , associative relationships , meaningful communication within the interdisciplinary relationships) . It is the "semantic field" provides the best option to use the voice of the lexical subsystem of language as simultaneously with the act of actualizations words (extract from memory or recognition of what he heard of the word) is updated and the system of semantic relationships assigned to the given word (or a substantial part of it) . Formation of the "semantic field" word is a continuous process, inextricably linked to the student's cognitive activity.
During the period of study at the university, students study different subjects. Each school subject involves a system of interconnected basic scientific concepts, from which students are learning depends on the quality of their knowledge on the subject as a whole. Thus we see our task in the formation of the students' system of concepts and terms to appropriate them on the research topics.
Any explanation set forth in writing or orally , is based on an entire pyramid of concepts arising out of each other . Therefore, loss of reasoning course of at least one concept leads to an understanding of the whole chain of explanation. A particularly strong effect on the process of understanding the concepts of loss , which does not serve as a support for one , and for the next few concepts. Given the links and relationships between the concepts they are divided into generic and specific . Concepts that reflect the essential common features of a class of objects to be generic . Concepts less common , reflecting the properties of the individual items within the scope of the generic concept , is a species .
As you know, most of the linguistic terms are complex words consisting of two structural elements: designating and the designated. When meeting with a stranger, even a term containing a generic element, the thought of students search will not occur randomly, by searching the available memory of the terms and within the semantic field of a generic term.
In our discipline, indicating a structural element of the linguistic terms are often the concept of logos (teaching). For the formation of terminology on "Lexicology" we introduce a generic term that has a wide semantic field, lexicon (vocabulary). Explain the etymology, morphology and semantics of the term. Beyond that acquaint students with generic terms. Students are encouraged to remember that any term containing the structural element of the lexical and is related to vocabulary.
Thus, the formation of concepts and systematically organized terminology base discipline is a gradual process, the basis of which is to provide support (generic) concepts, their development, which leads to a better understanding of information and more effective formulation of knowledge.
Summing up the above, it can be noted that the problem of understanding the science of textual information is deep and complex. To solve the problem requires the study of all components of this problem, which is difficult to do in a single publication.
1. M.E. Bershadski Understanding as a pedagogical category. M.: Centre for Pedagogical search, 2004.
2. S.B. Krimsky Scientific knowledge and the principles of its transformation. Kiev: Science of Thought, 1974.
3. A.R. Luria, O.S. Vinogradova The objective study of the dynamics of semantic systems// The semantic structure of the word. M.: Science, 1974.