Medicine / 7. Clinical medicine
Sc.D. Zhernov V.A., M.D. Zubarkina M.M.
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Russia
Medical rehabilitation of elderly patients
Resume. In article application of a hirudoreflexotherapy (HRT), acupuncture (ACU), magnitoreflexotherapy (MRT) in medical rehabilitation of elderly patients against the medicamentous treatment (MT) is shown. These methods possess the expressed adaptive effect, being accompanied increase of the functional reserves (FR) of an organism.
It is noted that HRT is most effective at patients with an arterial hypertension of 1 degree (AH1), MRT at patients with an arterial hypertension of 2 degrees (AH2).
Hirudotherapy (from Latin Hirudo – leech) or bdellotherapy (from Greek “bdella” - leech) is the medicinal use of leeches and leech-derived products.
In the Russian Federation, hirudotherapy is officially considered a treatment modality. In 1758, Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus was the first to describe the genus Hirudo.
Hirudo Medicinalis is an endangered species of the animal kingdom (Red List, 1984), and according to a decision by ICUN Species Survival Commission, the commercial harvest of these creatures from natural sources was forbidden in 1997.
In 2006 the International Federation for the Protection and Promotion of Medicinal Leeches was established in France, of which Mme B. Latrille is president, G.I. Nikonov (Russia) is vice-president, V.A. Zhernov is member.
Biology. Physical characteristics.
The Hungarian leech – Hirudo medicinalis officinalis – has orange stripes along the length of its back that have an evenly wavy pattern. The belly is olive green, monochrome with black longitudinal stripes along the sides.
European medicinal leech – Hirudo medicinalis medicinalis – has thin paired orange and black stripes along the length of its back that have an evenly wavy pattern which is filled with black drop-shaped spots. The belly is olive green with black spots of various shapes.
Eastern medicinal leech – Hirudo medicinalis orientalis – has a darker green coloration, with narrow orange stripes along its back, covered in an evenly spaced pattern with black four-cornered spots. The belly is black with green spots that are evenly spaced in pairs.
The therapeutic effect of hirudotherapy consists of a combination of reflex, biological, and mechanical factors. Hirudotherapy has general, segmental, and local reflectory effects, and also both local and general effects from the bioactive substances contained in the saliva of the medicinal leech .
Research objective was development of the system of the differentiated application of HRT, ACU, MRT for increase of efficiency of medical rehabilitation in complex recovery correction of FR at elderly to them old patients with AH.
Material and methods.
204 patients entered into research aged from 60 till 89 years which were distributed on 4 groups depending on therapy:
1 group: HRT+MT,
2nd group: ACU+MT,
3rd group: MRT+MT,
4th group: MT.
Each of groups was divided into 2 subgroups depending on degree of AH (AH1 and AH2) and age of patients (advanced age (73±2,1 years and old age (87±2,5 years).
Results of research.
HRT at elderly patients with firmness raised the FR level by 2,15 times for the 4th day. In the remote results of treatment in 3 months the FR level remained raised by 2,11 times.
At patients with AH2 HRT with firmness I raised the FR level by 1,57 times for the 9th day of treatment. This level in the remote results of treatment remained raised by 1,52 times.
Considering daily dynamics of the FR level at old patients with AH1 and AH2, noted the increase of the FR level similar to dynamics of the FR level of elderly patients.
At patients with AH1 the FR level with firmness raised by 1,89 times for the 4th day of therapy. In the remote results of treatment the FR level remained with firmness raised by 1,85 times.
At patients with AH2 for the 9th day of therapy the FR level by 1,47 times with firmness raised, in the remote results permanent increase of the FR level remained by 1,43 times.
For the 6th day of treatment of ACU with firmness I raised the FR level of elderly patients by 1,98 times. In 3 months the FR level remained raised by 1,93 times.
At patients with AH2 for the 7th day of therapy of ACU with firmness I raised the FR level by 1,65 times. This FR in the remote results of treatment remained raised by 1,60 times.
At old patients with AH1 permanent increase of the FR level by 1,87 times is revealed for the 6th day of therapy. In the remote results of treatment the FR level remained with firmness raised by 1,82 times.
Patients with AH2 have a FR level for the 7th day of therapy with firmness raised by 1,58 times, in the remote results its permanent increase remained by 1,54 times.
At MRT at elderly patients with AH1 the FR level was with firmness raised 1,85 times for the 7th day. In the remote results in 3 months the FR level remained raised by 1,81 times.
At patients with AH2 the FR level with firmness raised by 1,74 times for the 6th day. In 3 months the FR level remained raised by 1,71 times.
At patients of old age with AH1 permanent increase of the FR level by 1,71 times is revealed for the 7th day of treatment. In the remote results in 3 months of treatment this level remained with firmness raised by 1,65 times.
At patients with AH2 the FR level with firmness raised by 1,69 times for the 6th day. In 3 months its permanent increase remained by 1,64 times.
1 Application of the HRT, ACU, MRT non-drug technologies for patients of elderly and old age promotes essential increase in the FR level of an organism which more depends on weight of pathological process and practically isn't defined by age of patients.
2 . Regardless of age HRT was most effective at patients with AH1, and MRT at patients with AH2.
1. Zhernov V.A., Zubarkina M.M. Hirudotherapy. M: PFUR. 2012. – 48 p.