East Ukrainian Volodymyr Dahl National University
Post-atheistic religion in the XXI century
Globalization processes in the modern world have intensified interaction of different cultures and religions at the same time that they have become spiritual priority. There is a question of a new understanding of the role and place of religion and culture in the modern globalized world of the XXI century. Religion has always served an important function in the functioning of human society: identity function, ritualization of life, overcoming accidents, social integration, prediction (Kyung H., F.-K.Kaufman); compensatory, communicative, regulatory, integrating-disintegrating, and culture-translative (Yablokov I.N.). All these features become particularly relevant today, when there are large-scale socio-cultural changes and much prevalent postmodern views, that question the traditional values. At the same time, in recent decades by researchers of social and humanitary sciences are increasingly defined the issue of recovery of religion, or even "religious renaissance" (O.V. Shubaro), "revenge of God" (J. Keppel) or "post-atheistic religiosity" (M. N. Epstein).
V. Burlachuk notes that despite the prevalence of atheism in modern times, religious still remains over the new features of beliefs and ideas. The removing the ideological pressure lead to returning of the religiosity , coming it to the surface in traditional or new forms, especially when conflicts begin the destruction of state institutions [1, p. 124]. In this case, according to the idea of S.A. Lyaushevа, result of turbulent and diverse cultural contacts in the modern world is the feeling of instability of the world. When the outside world ceases to be clear, the search of things, that would help restore its integrity and orderliness, be protected from hardship is begins. In these circumstances, more and more people begin to seek support in their time-tested values of traditional religion, that are the most reliable and understandable. The result is strengthening of inner sense of unity and solidarity [2, p. 314].
In a world where there are chaotic and uncontrollable processes of social change, the people are united around traditional sources of identity, ethnic and religious. U. Eco describes a similar trend of "return to the New Middle Ages" . Considering the position, V.A. Bachynin, we see all over the postmodern discourse a two main directions. The first - a aggressive rebellion versus religion, preaching ideological nihilism and methodological anarchism. She opposes the other direction, whose representatives are confident that the postmodern world is gradually moving away from secularism and enters a post-secular age. They are convinced that modernism had to destroy the spiritual world of modern man anything that could break and the only way of salvation - is turning back to his father's house abandoned absolute values and meanings. Specifically, this way is no only to continue to move forward into new spiritual perspective, but on the basis of good-quality, high-quality, values and meanings that are in the spiritual baggage of humanity, although it were pushed into the far corner of the spiritual world. Thus, this cultural era continues the way of de-centered and theocentric models of the world, there is a conflict paradigms secularism and theism . Today we are seeing significant interest in society to religion, but this does not deny the democratic views and the authority of science.
The historical reality poses challenges for science in spite of pluralism to find out the possibilities of religion to culture today. It is appropriate to recall the prediction of american futurist A. Zolli: "the twenty-first century will be the most religious era, simultaneously accompanied with the rapid development of bio-, nano-, information and cognitive technologies" [5, p. 206].
Sacralization cultural phenomena, the revival of interest in religion in its various forms is a new task to religious organizations, and to society. Nowadays, the impact of these processes on society is so significant that the situation of the last decades even called "post-secular culture."
New challenges arise as to religion and to the culture, that is slowly adapting to social change. The interest of researchers to the problem of relations between religion and secular culture in science and theology is due to a complex picture of ideological relations in society. The development of religion and culture are interdependent. Culture is diverse, and religion appears as the ideological core of the culture. In this situation, the religious culture of traditional churches retains its role in shaping the identity of individuals who are involved in this culture. There is a legitimate question whether the trend expressed by the consequences of the crisis, or response, which aims to neutralize the crisis and to balance cultural processes in postmodern information society.
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