M. Kh. Dulaty Taraz State University, Kazakhstan, Taraz
Anthropometric variability in body size and body type of elderly women
Human life is a continuous process of development, which passes through the following stages: maturation, adulthood and aging. The old age is between 55 to 75 years old (female), from 60 to 75 years of age (men). After, it begins a senior or old age (75-90 years). People over 90 years are called longevity. The man, of course, is the absolute value of the society and its health is a guarantee of the harmonious development of society, guarantee of political stability and economic progress of the state. The continuously occurring processes of matter and energy metabolism in the human body determine the characteristics of its development. The rate of mass change, increase, circles of the body in different life periods are not equal. In old and older age are irreversible changes in the systems and organs of the human body, called aging. Worldwide a steady increase is retained in the absolute and relative number of elderly persons. In recent years, the average life span (ALS) in Kazakhstan has exceeded 70 years.
In recent years, significant changes in the age structure of society by increasing the proportion of older people. This is indicated by numerous publications, research, scientific conferences, etc. And 1999 has been declared the International Year of Older Persons by the UN General Assembly. In this regard, significantly interest is increased in the problems of older people, and especially to the challenges of creating clothes for this group of the population, providing them a physiological and psychological comfort. More investigated body sizes and body types in younger and middle age groups of consumers, that is, from 18 to 45 years. In the older age group, these studies were carried out only in the group of users from 45 to 56 years.
Analysis of the literature showed no antropomorphological information about the rest of consumers older than 56 years, there is any information requirements for clothes and other, making it difficult to design clothes for them. Especially for people in this age group, who is leading very active lifestyle and who wants to have a decent look.
In 60 years, women are already able to sensibly evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. With age, the figure spreads. Not every woman manages to keep themselves in perfect shape. The upper part of the arm is it's just one of those areas on which time leaves quite noticeable marks. And so you need to choose the right clothes, but it needs to make clothes that will hide flaws. In the Republic of Kazakhstan held a small amount of variability in the study of body size and body type of women is elderly. Therefore, to sew clothes for the category over 50 years is difficult, and many sewing workshops sew articles on common standards. Anthropometry is a set of methods and techniques for evaluation of the morphological features of the human body. To do this, use the measuring and descriptive attributes.
Growth and development are two interrelated and interdependent aspects of the same process. Growth is a quantitative change, associated with an increase in cell size, weight of individual organs and tissues and the whole organism. Development is the qualitative changes, differentiation of tissues and organs and their functional improvement. Growth and development occur unevenly. Physical development is a process of quantitative and qualitative changes of the human body during the performance of his life. Fundamentals of modern anthropometric research methods lay down in the last century, when the laws were written variability of anthropometric indicators. Exploring the anthropometric measures (height or body length, weight, or body weight, circumference of various body parts), you can clearly and simply to assess physical development. Understanding the physical development is obtained by carrying out the three main dimensions:
- Determining the length of the body;
- Body weight;
- The girth of the chest.
Anthropometric measurements make it possible to obtain objective data on important morphological parameters of the body - the length, weight, chest circumference, etc. They are the basis of methods for studying the physical development of man. These many studies around the world show that the height, weight and other morphological parameters are playing an important role in human physiology; his health is directly dependent on these parameters.
Analyzing the data of anthropometry, it can be stated that the age-related features in varying degrees, are available for all parameters. In older age groups, with increasing age were recorded significantly lower values of body length (from 161,33 ± 0,32 cm in the second adult to 156,44 ± 0,65 cm - in old; p = 0,00000).
The gradual decrease in the average length of the body with age, ranging from 45 years, explained the status of individuals older study group to the previous, more stunted generation. Only after 60 years, it is a real decrease in body length 0.5-1.0 cm for each subsequent 5 years. This change is due to the flattening of the intervertebral disc cartilage, as well as a decrease in neuromuscular tone of the elderly, leading to deterioration in their posture.The highest values of body weight were recorded in older women (78, 22 ± 0, 88 kg). Peak values of body weight in old age gave way to lower its value at the oldest, on average, in women older than 75 years is specified index was 66,89 ± 1,56 kg. After 60 years, most people have a body weight begins to decrease gradually, mainly due to atrophic changes in the tissues and reducing water content. Taking into account these and other studies of body size and body type, you can provide quality clothing, practical and the most important factor for older women, which is a convenience.
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