Ph. D., docent Surzhenko N.V., student Panov A.V.
Tavria state agrotechnological University
The current state of cheese production in France
Long since the French are famous for the variety and exquisite taste of its food. Depending on climatic conditions, soil fertility, grapes for wine-making, or the breed of cows for the subsequent wet production, as well as other factors, France is parted into ‘Appellation origin protection’ zone (AOP zone with the products, protected by their place of origin). This means that to produce the desired product with the brand name of its original name, the farm or the enterprise should be in a particular region or locality where production - whether it's production department or area. Cheese, produced in the AOP area, has the highest level of quality; it must meet the strict requirements of: authorized breeds of cattle, clearly limited area of production, limiting milk production, number of cattle, grazing (not less than 200 days in a year), and strict control of product samples.
This association provides a revenue stamp with the lot number and short coordinates of farm producer, is engaged in distribution of equipment for farms and supply the necessary supplies. It also provides their cellars of cheese ripening and long term storage.
The passage, by student, the professional practice at one of these farms, let allow going deep into this question. The internship took place at the adjacent, dairy and cheese farm, located in the AOP area of Saint-Nectaire, which gave name to the famous cheese St Nectaire. For its production uses cow breed Prim-holstein (Prim-Holstein). The average milk gets per cow in lactation period is 9330 kg. The Number of livestock is around 180 animals, of which 2/3 - are dairy cows, the rest are calves and heifers, aged till 2.5 years. So 10 of the 12 cows give milk every day. The amount of milk produced on the farm per day is 3025 l.
The milking room is located in 2 km from the cheese factory. Milk, through the milking machine, is sent to spherical vessel with a volume of 1500 liters at the end of the milking, installed on the tractor trailer. Also part of the milk (about 15%) is used in the ration of calves as a supplement. The main diet of calves is milk powder. Thus, the amount of milk used for cheese production, is 2571,25 l (85%).
There is a small cheese factory at this farm, designed for a small production, which has: a workshop, refrigerators compartment, storage (up to 1 week) and a shop with storage space. In the workshop installed tank of 3000 l, the molding table, a short press (for 120 s) and one long (for 6 h) exposure, machine for washing devices for production of cheese.
When the milk delivered to the cheese factory, it arrives from the vessel into the tank, a temperature must be 32 °. For this purpose, provided in the vat "shirt" - a cavity in the walls of the reservoir with hot or cold water circulates in it. When the temperature achieved the optimum value, ferments are added to the calculation of 25-30 g /100 liters, depending on the chemical composition and other factors (average 25 g).
St Nectaire cheese has a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 20-24 cm and a height of 3.5-5.5 cm. Weight of one is about 1,850 kg. For its production requires 14 to 17 liters of milk, depending on the fat content in milk. On a farm milk consumption per one product is about 15.6 liters. The daily management performance averages 165 cheeses. After all processes, the cheese is stored in the refrigerators compartment and once a week it taken by AOP company for maturation and implementation. Only 10% of production is returned to farmers for individual sale and for personal consumption, with considering the costs of storage.
We noted the many advantages of this production. Learned farm is the average type, but it made a large number of high-quality and useful products. There are more than 10 employers who do different types of work, using a variety of equipment, which improve the labor intensity of production.
Development of small and medium-sized farms is important for Ukraine. In our view, the establishment of such farms and factories in our country should be actively taking place. This requires state support (subsidies for production activities, the loyal credit policy of banks, a reasonable tax load, etc.), because food production is essential in fabrication, which has a stable demand but must have a high level of competitiveness. In Ukraine, there are climate and fertile soil, perfect for development of agriculture. There will also be an opportunity to increase employment places of the population of Ukraine and the most important thing - will be a new kind of biologically pure and quality products. And as a result, will go up the country's GDP, which would be relevant in the context of the present crisis and inflation.