M. Kh. Dulaty Taraz State University, Kazakhstan, Taraz
graduate student, Faculty of Economics and Business
Lending to small and medium-sized businesses: problems
Small and medium enterprises play an important role in economic development, both in the Republic of Kazakhstan and abroad. Development of small business in modern Kazakhstan attaches priority importance is largely due to the need to accelerate the development of market relations. This small business is destined to play the role of locomotive of the market economy, paving the way for all the others. The importance of the study of the problems of the business is what it is said to all who are interested in a particular subject, the least fortunate and to the state of any other support. Relevance of the topic of this paper is to consider the role of small and medium-sized businesses in the economic structure of the country and the real situation - as a customer of banking services. Small and medium enterprises are not only an integral part of and subjective basis of modern economic market, but also the most flexible, efficient and transparent system of business, due to the minimal size of a form of management.
State support for small
business is carried out in the following areas:
-Create favorable conditions for the use of small business entities of state financial, statistical, logistical and informational resources,
- The establishment of a simplified procedure for state registration of small businesses, the licensing of their activities, certification of their products;
- Establishment of a legal favored for small businesses;
-Create a system of attraction and use of investments, including foreign ones, to support and development of small businesses;
-Support for foreign trade activities of small businesses, including the development of commercial, industrial and other relations with foreign partners;
- Adoption special lending programs for small businesses with the definition of financial sources.
Depending on the nature lent value exists commodity, currency and commodity-money (mixed) forms of credit. The commodity form of credit preceded is cash. It is originated in the initial stage of commodity production when actors with surplus commodities could give them to others with deferred payment. The monetary form of credit in modern conditions the most common and correspond to the requirements of economic development. Since the money is considered a universal equivalent in commodity and universal means of circulation and payment, the demand for them is increasing in line with increased production and sales volume, exchange of consumption. Commodity-money (mixed) credit a form arises when the loan is presented in the form of commodities on credit and repay the money, or vice versa, the credit issued in the form of money is repaid by the borrower in the form of goods. This form of credit is used in international credit relations, when the borrowing country for the received cash loan lender calculated item. To identify the key factors of business development and the development of appropriate policies, in international practice is to analyze the state of small and medium-sized enterprises (hereinafter SMEs), since this factor is the core of sustainable civil society, the development of which depends on the well-being of all countries, and Kazakhstan as well. Small and medium-sized businesses do not only perform great social role in supporting economic activity most of the population, but also provide significant tax revenues. In the current difficult situation it SMEs can act as a stabilizer, and therefore entitled to the appropriate attention of society and state. Customs Union is an effective mechanism to protect the internal market of the participating countries. It is known that the formation of the CU in Kazakhstan has increased significantly the level of tariff protection. One of the main problems hindering the development of small and medium-sized businesses is the lack of financial resources for the investment needs of SMEs. Particularly acute shortage of credit resources is in the real sector of entrepreneurs. This program provides support in the form of subsidized interest rates on new and existing loans STB, STB to guarantee loans of banks, the development of the necessary industrial infrastructure, support services, and training and retraining, as well as to provide financial and non-financial support to budding entrepreneurs. For effective interaction of financial and credit mechanism of private enterprise we have the following measures were proposed:
1.To improve the existing methods and forms of credit;
2. The greater use of non-bank loans, to introduce new forms and methods of non-bank lending;
3. To expand the use of financial leasing, lease financing to develop;
4. To expand and create the conditions for the provision of guarantees (guarantees);
5. Introduce an effective mechanism of risk insurance.
6. Differentiated policy towards small and medium-sized businesses;
7. Create equal conditions for the organization of small and large financial institutions;
8. Take fully into account regional peculiarities in the credit support of small business;
9. To enhance the role of regional banks in the development of the real economy.
Also, the use of foreign experience in matters of the lack of security against the loan can have a positive impact on its decision through the creation in Kazakhstan, guarantee funds, adopting experience Small Business Administration organization whose mission is to support small business in the US. SBA offers a software package aimed at financing and guaranteeing the loans of small businesses in the United States. Experience of SBA is valuable due to the fact that under the Small Business Development Fund work is already underway in Kazakhstan on the creation of guarantee funds.
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