Sh.K. Òuleubayeva, N. Amangeldin
1Senior teacher, master, 2student
Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda
Banking system of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The banking system is a collection of different kinds of national banks and credit institutions operating under a common monetary mechanism. The banking system includes central bank, a network of commercial banks and other credit and computational centers. The central bank conducts the state emission and monetary policy, is the core of the backup system. Commercial banks perform all types of banking operations .
The banking system is defined as a set of participants in the monetary market - commercial and specialized banks, non-bank institutions performing deposit, lending and payment transactions, and operating under a common monetary mechanism.
The blocks and elements form a unity, reflecting the specificity of a speaking and media properties. The banking system has a number of features: has specific properties; acts as a single unit; it is dynamic; serves as a closed type system; has the character of a self-regulating system; a managed system.
The system can not include other entities that operate in the market and are subject to fulfillment of other purposes. The specifics of the banking system is determined by its elements and the relations developing between them. The essence of the banking system affects the composition and nature of its elements.
Types of banking systems: Distribution centralized banking system; market the banking system; system transition.
In countries with developed market economies have developed two-tier banking system. The upper level of the system is represented by the central (issuing) bank. On the lower level are the commercial banks, subdivided into universal and specialized banks (investment banks, savings banks, mortgage banks, consumer credit banks, branch banks, bank-internal).
The banking system does not include non-bank financial institutions (investment companies, investment funds, insurance companies, pension funds, pawnshops, trust companies). These institutions are part of a general category - financial institutions.
The concept of "banking system" includes a set of components, sufficient element forming a certain integrity, interaction elements.
The banking system can not include production and non-agricultural enterprises and organizations engaged in another kind of activity.
The specifics of the banking system is determined by its constituent elements and relations developing between them. The practice knows several types of the banking system: Distribution centralized banking system; Market's banking system; system transition.
The banking system is characterized by the absence of a market-led state monopoly on banks. Each subject of the reproduction of various forms of property (not just the state) can form the bank. In a market economy operates the plurality of banks with a decentralized management system. Issuing and lending function to share them with each other. The emission is concentrated in the central bank, lending to businesses and households carry a variety of business banks - commercial, investment, innovation, mortgages, savings, etc. Business banks are not liable for the obligations of the state, as well as the state is not responsible for the liabilities of business banks.; business banks subject to their advice, the decision of the shareholders, not the administration of the State.
The Bank's policy in each case will be uneven. Determination of the bank objectives as an indispensable attribute of banking activities, if it is not going to work in darkness, blind, nevertheless does not exhaust the matter. The strategy as a science, there a number of practical activities, ensuring its implementation, involves the introduction of management tools and the creation of a favorable climate. The strategy should take into account the external conditions of banking activities, to determine the result of which the bank aims to achieve. We can say that the strategy is like a part of the system element to the success of banking activities.
The purpose of a commercial bank is determined from the position of its profitability, profitability, balance sheet structure, directions of its activity (deposit policy, the policy on the financial market, in the field of credit and loan interest etc.). In each case, may be the common goals (for the whole bank in the future) and private purpose formed as an ongoing problem. The combination of strategic goals and operational objectives, a combination of strategic and current planning allows commercial banks to avoid failures in their work, more fully realize their interest in the world of commerce.
Commercial banks have an important role in the economy of any country. They perform a very important role in the economy. Without economy bank itself would not exist.
1. Kosterina T. M. Book of "Banking"
2. Sukhanov S.E. - Bank Policy