M. Kh. Dulaty Taraz State University, Kazakhstan, Taraz
post graduate student, Faculty of Economics and Business
The development of the chemical industry
Chemical industry is a complex industry which determines, along with mechanical engineering, the level of scientific and technical progress, ensuring all sectors of the economy of chemical technologies and materials, including new, progressive and producing mass consumer goods. Today chemical and petrochemical industry is the base of the Kazakhstan segment of the industry, which lays the foundations for its long-term and stable development and has a significant impact on the structural changes in the economy, with a significant macroeconomic effect and influence on the level of national competitiveness and economic growth in general.
The level of development of chemical industry of a single country determines the level of industrial development in general, and the proportion of the chemical industry in the manufacturing sector indicates the degree of technological weapons and abilities to create products with high added value. The level of development of chemical industry indicates the degree of application of chemicals economy as chemical products serves not only the industrial sector, but also is used in agriculture, the food industry, in everyday life and medicine. The creation and expansion of the mineral resource base for mining and metals, oil and gas industry is one of the main prerequisites for the successful growth of any economy both at the stage of formation of industrial and innovative development in the period. In plants this industry are produced: sulfuric acid, caustic and soda ash, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids, fertilizers, plastics and synthetic resins, synthetic fibers, synthetic detergents and surfactants, paints and synthetic dyes, various solvents etc. This also caused a high degree of relevance of the topic. With significant potential for the effective development of industrial enterprises, Kazakhstan is at an early stage of the innovation industrial upgrading. The main problems of the domestic industry are associated with low demand for manufactured goods, moral and physical depreciation of fixed assets, particularly infrastructure, technological backwardness, high costs per unit of output. Not least in the state program for accelerated industrial-innovative development of 2020 takes the development of the chemical industry. Moreover, in our country there are all necessary conditions for its development: rich natural resources, experience in the production of traditional chemical products and the presence of Russian scientific schools in the field of chemical sciences. At the same time, obsolete equipment and technology cannot provide the depth and complexity of the processing of mineral and hydrocarbon raw materials. In addition, the domestic market «plays» the low capacity against the development of the industry. For the same products to the Kazakhstan chemical plants to be competitive on the international market, we need huge investments. In contrast to the nomenclature of export import chemical complex is vast and traditionally it prevail the final destination of the goods plastic products, paints, tires, household chemical products, rubber products, Cinematographic and Photo materials, chemical pesticides, i.e. products with high added value. National Agency for Export and Investment «KaznexInvest» sees a way to increase the competitiveness of domestic enterprises through internationalization of Kazakhstani business. And the Agency works with Kazakhstani companies already exporting their products or potentially capable of and willing to export, and with foreign companies in order to attract their capital, technology and knowledge in Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan chemical industry development prospect chemical and petrochemical products trade development prospect will be determined mainly: growth of tariffs for energy and raw materials; efficiency and timing of implementation of investment and innovation processes; measures to protect the interests of domestic producers in foreign and domestic markets; the development of infrastructure (warehouses, ports, shipping and other chemical products.) the introduction of foreign investors in the manufacturing processes and their orientation to markets. It should be noted strong growth of the domestic market for a number of products. At the same time, the low growth in domestic consumption is characterized by the market of mineral fertilizers, caustic soda, chemical fibers and yarns. The technical and economic potential of the chemical and petrochemical industry does not allow the forecast market demand for competitive products. An effective solution to the above system of socio-economic problems is possible with the direct participation of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the federal executive bodies. To date, the advanced research and development opens up new prospects for the chemical industry - is coming era of nanotechnology. Composite materials, coatings, ceramics, polycrystalline silicon and products based on it, nano-membranes and many other innovations enable the chemical industry to start producing a fundamentally different product that has previously unimaginable properties. The development of nanotechnology will change the understanding of traditional chemical plant. First of all, it will be blurred the boundaries between the various branches of industry and science. In a chemical plant can not only produce, but also to "grow" previously unknown materials. The results of the ongoing research in the world today will allow, for example, starting production of special medicinal compounds that are able to act selectively on the pathogens of a single person. Chemistry and petro chemistry is one of the most dynamic and innovative sectors of the economy. The implementation of innovation policy in the petrochemical industry is one of the priorities of Kazakhstan's economy. The funds from this fund are allocated on a competitive basis for the financing of breakthrough innovations, bringing the project to the stage of pilot plants, joint commercialization development. Chemical industry, along with metallurgy, thermal power plants, and pulp and paper production, is included in the group of large emissions of hazardous substances, the greatest influence on the atmosphere, water resources, polluting the soil and groundwater. Especially dangerous is relatively small in volume, but highly toxic waste microbiological industry, production of pesticides and others. Emissions mainly polluted by the chemical industry, many of the country. In order to improve environmental conditions in industrial processes sector should be used: oxidation and reduction with the use of oxygen and nitrogen, electrochemical methods, membrane separation technology of gas and liquid mixtures, biotechnology, as well as methods of radiation, ultraviolet, electric pulse and intensification of plasma chemical reactions. Urgent tasks in the chemical industry of Kazakhstan are: overcoming the protracted crisis, technical re-equipment of enterprises with wide application of new and emerging technologies that can provide a comprehensive utilization of mineral and hydrocarbon raw materials, increase production efficiency, reduce emissions of pollution, recycling of industrial waste, the financing of priority directions of development.
Chemisation of national economy is one of the key levers to improve production efficiency and quality of work in all spheres of human activity. The major advantage of the use of chemical processes and materials is the possibility of creating materials with predetermined properties, lacking the necessary lightness and strength, corrosion and dielectric properties, the ability to operate in extreme conditions. The use of artificial and synthetic materials provide a significant, often decisive, increased productivity, reduced production costs, improve its quality, facilitates and improves the conditions of production of culture, frees labor and material resources.
1.Virkunen V. World leaders provide a clear industry benchmark // Weekly industrial growth. September 3, 2007.
2.Lebedeva G.I, Brusnina M.A. Personnel policy and development // Refining and Petrochemicals, ¹ 5, 2011.
3.Osipov A.S. Benefits of innovation development // Electronic Journal "Modern research and innovation." 20.05.2011.