Senior teacher of Kazakh Automobile Road Institute named after L.B. Goncharov
« All of us must clearly realize that
development of culture and art, science
and education, preservation of traditions,
spiritual revival of people depend on how
effective the reforms will be »
The long-term researches of the problem of testing in different countries and in our
Republic enabled us to develop general and private methodology of scientific approach to testing knowledge gained and covstructed on its basis.
The important item to solve this problem is the scientific definition of the concept «test».
Various researchers put various interpretation on the concept «test». However distinctive features of «test» may be considered established and this suggests a general definition of the concept which can be specified by researching different objeckts (social, psychological, pedagogical etc.) for which a concrete test is intended for. Test is a set of questions and tasks given to the person who is examined to reveal his social, psychological or psychophysiological features, and to clarify the depth of his scientific or instructional knowledge.
Essential attributes of the test are as follows.
1. to be a means of psychodiagnostics and psychoprognostication (including pedagogical linguodidactic knowledge, skills of the pupils) and it can be used many times.
2. To be in the form of questions and tasks providing one answer.
3. Ti be worked outthoroughly in accordance with certain rules.
4. To be experimentally and preliminarily checked (sometimes many times), this will enable us to select rally effective tasks having rather high level of frose differentiation and difficulty in the test.
5. To have standard answer, simplicity of comparison with it.
6. Not to depend on estimation of results i.e., to have objective results of testing.
7. To have the opportunity of making quantitive account and mathematical and statistical processing of testing results, rendering from simple fixing of speech reactions to the generalized derivative estimation.
When making up tests of humanitarian directions (for example language or lingudidactic) the following objects of control should be picked up.
a) linguistic competence
b) communicative competence
c) formation of general educational and special (liguodidactic) skills
d) training and to be trained to a foreign language
e) developing effect of training
The following classification of linguodidactic tests is offered
1 According to the purpose, function and contents
2 According to the formal features (constructive, external and etc.)
In the first group test can be singled out into subgroups
1. According to the purpose of application
a) Ascertaining tests
b) diagnosting tests
c) prognosticating tests
2. According to the type of control
a) current control tests
b) boundary (at the end of the term)
c) total control tests (at the end of academic year)
d) final control tests (at the end of the year)
3. According to the status of supervising program
a) standardized tests b) non-standardized tests
4. According to the object of the control
a) tests determining mastering of a language material (skills)
b) tests determining the formation of speech skills
5. According to the character of control
a) tests of the linguistic competence
b) tests of the communicative competence
6. According to an orientation of the test tasks
a) discrete tests
b) global tests
7. According to the correlation with norms or criteria
a) tests oriented to the norms
b) tests oriented to the criteria
The second group of tests is composed of the following subgroups
1. According to the structure and the way of registration of answer
a) the selective tests
b) tests with answers made up freely
2. According to the character of selective answers
a) alternative tests
b) tests of numerous choice
c) tests of cross choice
3. According to homogeneous tasks
a) tests on speed consisting of equally difficult tasks
b) tests on complexity consisting of complicated tasks
4. According to the way of presentation of speech stimulus
a) by using technical means of training
b) without using technical means of training
5. According to the usage of the means of operative feedback
It is important to distinguish a number of aspects in the problem of teaching a foreign language as one of the objects of pedagogical testing.
Various aspects of mental activity are understood as training and training reflects the degree of development of a person during its formation. Relating to foreign languages training can be determined as a set of personal features including mental activity, that creates reasons for effective knowledge, for educational and speech operations connected with mastering a foreign language as a means of communication.
Training structure includes the following elements
a) linguistic thinking
b) person’s features to be formed, ingenuity, inquisitiveness, responsibility, will, purposefulness, diligence
c) linguistic, abilities – mastering vocabulary and grammatical structure of the language, verbal memory, acoustical and visual differentiation
d) the orientation of a person
e) the interest to a foreign language
f) the reasons to master it
To be trained is the result of a person’s activity, determined by training and making all components which compose the training structure partially and fully actual. That is why to be trained should be defined with the account of training. It is impossible to evaluate the effect of training without it.
With the above training and controlling knowledge with the help of tests are objective, mobile and perspective and are of great importance among various forms of training and bringing up.
The republic of Kazakhstan has more than high level of development of testing in the secondary and higher education. Testing method has given a great impulse to speeding reforms, has created mechanisms for perfection of training process and increasing the quality of specialists’ training.
For more than 20 years the testing system in Kazakhstan has been perfected. It has not only absorbed in itself advanced experience and technology of leading countries of the world but it also has made its worthy contribution by having developed and having introduced multialternative system of testing.
Tests are intended to reveal school leavers knowledge, skills and habits in all subjects according to the requirements of general educational state standard. And they embrace basic subjects working with the tests in English an applicant must:
1. read the text embracing the whole content
2. comprehend alternatives be aware of
3. correlate each of them with the content of the text
4. choose the necessary answer
The solution of tests can’t be based on mechanical learning but on deep mastering program material.
Reading and understanding the text speak about a level of preparedness of an applicant.
Before solving tests it is necessary to study grammatical and lexical material information from the abstract.
Rapport I.A. Experience in testing of reading // Foreign languages at school. – 1973 ¹ 1 pp 34-42
Rapport I.A., Yohlerner M.M., Selg R., Sotter I. About diagnostic functions of a testing technique of addition // Foreign languages at school. – 1976 ¹ 2 pp 31-37
Rapport I.A. The primary tests: essence, specificity, prospects // Foreign languages at school. – 1985 ¹ 2 pp 70-74
Problems of training foreign languages. – Tallin, 1976 p. 132
Questions of theory and practice of language tests. – Tallin, 1980 p. 229
Rapport A.A., Selg R., Sotter I. Tests in teaching foreign languages in secondary school: (a book for teachers) – Tallin, Valgus, 1987 p. 351.