PhD Economics, Associate Professor
Lutsk National Technical University
BACKGROUNDS OF THE DIVERSIFICATION OF THE GLOBAL TOURISM MARKET AND ITS CURRENT DETERMINANTS
The twentieth century
has seen rapid development of the global tourism market. Key factors of this
shown in Fig. 1. led to the formation of new areas of international economic
relations and the formation of mass tourism, which became the basis of
transnationalization and global institutionalization of the travel market.
Fig 1. Factors of development of tourism in the second half of XX century
The diversification of the tourist market basing on the allocation of new segments substantially quantitatively increases the saturation of the market and requires institutional support and motivation. The result of solving these problems on the basis of the functioning of the global mass tourism market in the twentieth century was the emergence of specialized structures for the regulation of the international market of tourist services, development of infrastructure and material support of travels, varying subtypes of intermediaries (tour operators, travel agencies, travel consortia), increased cooperation between financial corporations and producers of tourist services with the goal of expanding quantitative capabilities and increase the flow of tourists.
All of approaches, mentioned by us, determine the quantitative vector of diversification of the tourist market. As for qualitative characteristics, the basic direction of introduction of the split criteria is the variety of grocery and specific manifestations, based on tourist demand.
If we justify determinant characteristics, in our opinion, a decisive role will be played by endogenous factors. Exogenous factors characterizing the globalization factors, such as the simplification of visa regimes, openness to citizens of different countries, will lead to increased tourist flows.
In general, all determinate characteristics, reflecting the diversification of the tourist market can be represented in the form Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The direction of determination the diversification of the tourism market
For special attention deserve the trends associated with the evolution of the consciousness of equality and openness of shared civilizational heritage for citizens of different countries. Yet until recent years there were a number of reservations, rasistic prejudices and religious conflicts, which led to braking of development of international tourism, the exclusion of entire regions from a geographical market of diversification. Cross-cultural interaction, coherence at the international level, the general strategy of development of the industry, open borders for travellers has led to a global increase of the dynamics of travelling and the discovery of entire layers of civilizational heritage of the world. The opportunity to travel even stimulates the middle class of the population to make savings and to open new countries, destinations, tribes.
Another vector of the subject diversification are tour operators and tour firms. Differentiation of tourist services in modern conditions is an important strategic direction that reinforces the position of the agency by establishing high entry barriers to the market, since the same type of travel services are not perceived by the potential customers of tourism products. At the same time, implementing such a strategy, it is necessary to consider the lack of tourism business innovations in the organizational activities of contractual relations between tourist firms-wholesalers (tour operators) and travel agencies who offer their services directly to the consumer [1, p. 137]. The travel agencies build their strategy of competitive development based on diversification of services consider advantages and disadvantages of this activity. On one hand they take into account the reduced sensitivity of consumer to price, high entrance barriers into the market due to consumer loyalty, the ability to ensure long-term competitive advantages and creating a positive image of a travel company-innovator. Among threats, there are significant price gap in costs compared to the leader, the risk of losing the specificity of the product as a result of changing values of the consumer, the incompatibility of the strategy to reduce costs, uneven demand for special services in the territorial and sectoral dimensions.
1. Pravyk Yu.M. Marketynh turyzmu: pidruchnyk. – K.: Znannya, 2008. - 303 s.