ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ/ 2.Современные технологии управления.
Zhanbekova Z.Kh. c.e.s., Associate Professor
Karaganda economic University Kazpotrebsoyuz, Kazakhstan
STATE SUPPORT AND MEASURES TO ENSURE FOOD SECURITY IN KAZAKHSTAN
One of the most important areas of implementation of the concept of economic development of any country is the problem of food security, which includes guaranteeing a stable food supply, as well as the maintenance of agricultural production to ensure food sovereignty.
Food safety is an integral part of the national security of the country, as no state can achieve national, including economic security, is not satisfied in the first place people's needs for quality food.
In international practice, there are two main indicators of food security: first - is the amount of carry-over stocks of grain in the world, remain in storage until the next harvest harvesting; secondly - grain production level per capita.
The threshold value of the first indicator of the stock is considered to be equal to 60 days or 17% of annual world consumption . Reduction of stocks below this level leads to a sharp increase in world prices for grain, to the destabilization of the world grain market, deterioration of global market conditions for importing countries and, indirectly, the destabilization of other product markets . In Kazakhstan, the volume of carry-over stocks of grain set at 90 days, which corresponds to 25% of annual consumption. In establishing the criteria for the status of national food security must be taken into account that they have to characterize the level of satisfaction of the population's needs for food, as well as the sustainability of food security of the country.
To assess the level of food security of the population it is expedient in the opinion of many scientists and economists use the following criteria:
- Production of 80-85% of the total domestic food producers;
- Population of food consumption with an optimal level of calories (2353 kcal per day) ;
- Ensuring the rational structure of power and the complete satisfaction of the population's needs in accordance with the rules of physiologically justified;
- Match the quality of food products with the technical regulations;
- Generated through the creation of an insurance reserve of food at 25% of the annual volume of food consumption;
- There is a real possibility to meet nutritional needs, not produced domestically, or produced in insufficient quantities, by imports;
- Per capita production of at least one ton of grain.
In assessing the food security situation it is advisable to use the norms that regulate two normative levels of nutrition: an adequate used for socio-economic calculations in normal conditions and the minimum required to be used to guarantee the maintenance of the population in emergency food situations. In case of exceeding the threshold values of the above criteria is achieved by providing a threshold level.
The minimum required level of availability of food corresponds to the food component "consumer basket", ie a set of forty-three staple foods, defined on the basis of annual rates of consumption necessary for men of working age, and differentiated by gender and age.
Food security is characterized by physical access to food, economic access to food and quality of food.
Evaluation of physical access to food is carried out by comparing the level of the actual volumes of consumption of country food consumption standards, which are mainly used to develop the Kazakh Academy of Nutrition minimum standards for food consumption, based on the recommended level of consumption of the average inhabitant of the country. Analyzing the consumption of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period 2010-2015, it should be noted that only two of the ten most important food products had an excess consumption standards, indicating the presence in the country serious problems with food security.
In solving the problem of ensuring national food security serious attention should be paid to the country's self-sufficiency main types of food, that is, address the need for them primarily through domestic supplies with minimal dependence on foreign trade. When analyzing the capacity of the domestic food market of the Republic of Kazakhstan can be observe the following picture: the degree of availability of effective demand for domestic production of canned meat - 51.5%, sausage products - 62, condensed milk and cream - 20.6, dry milk - 44,5, butter - 66.4, cheese - 44.5, dairy products - 77.2, sugar - 69.7, confectionery products - 45%, juice - 68.5, canned tomato - 46.3, canned fruit and vegetables - less than 10%.
Internal flour market is fully provided by domestic production.
Economic access to food is defined as the possibility of acquiring a population of food products under the existing level of prices and incomes in the amounts set forth in the minimum consumer basket.
The country is considered to be secure in terms of food safety, where the proportion of people suffering from hunger is very low (less than 5 percent). In the case where the level of food deprivation (food calorie level), one of the food safety monitoring indicators, more than 35 percent of the country there is a problem of struggle against hunger.
During the period from 2009 to 2014 the proportion of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan of dietary energy consumption is below the minimum level, decreased by 5.2 times and amounted to 3% . Thus, at the present time the problem of hunger is not topical for Kazakhstan, which is among the countries with very low levels of food deprivation.
According to the FAO methodology, consumption inequality is measured by a coefficient of variation of the energy value of food consumption.
According to the FAO methodology, consumption inequality is measured by a coefficient of variation of the energy value of food consumption. This figure consists of two main components: the first reflects the inequality of food consumption due to income, the second - the inequality associated with biological factors (age and weight of household members).
A high coefficient of variation (30) the uneven distribution of energy among the population manifested primarily by income (or expense). A low value (about 20) is mainly due to non-uniformity of biological factors.
World experience shows that food safety problems arise, in particular, because of the lack of development of their own agricultural production states, the low level of economic development of the country: the population is not available on the food prices at which it reaches the market. According Energyprom.kz retail food prices in general rose by 12.7%. 
Currently, Kazakhstan has problems with food security, because of the nine indicators of positive values achieved only by four (the amount of carry-over stocks of grain, grain production per capita, proportion of the population, dietary energy below minimum level, the average calorie daily diet nutrition).
According to academic economists as a recommendation proposes the following set of measures concerning the elimination of internal and external threats to national food security:
- improving the system of economic relations in the sphere of production, purchasing, primary and deep processing, storage, transportation and sale of agricultural products;
- encouraging small-scale agribusiness enterprises transition to specialized medium and of large-scale production, as well as the transfer of livestock and crop production on an industrial scale;
- An optimal combination of state and market regulation of prices of agricultural products with the aim of revitalizing the demand of the population and improve the competitiveness of domestic food in the domestic and foreign markets;
- Flexible taxation of farmers, the provision of tax benefits to those producers who have invested in the development of priority sectors and products, or to adhere to the principle of sustainable development of production in compliance with environmental regulations;
- Creation of a common food market of the CIS countries with the phasing out of customs duties and charges and the harmonization of pricing policy;
- Setting the size of railway tariffs for transit of goods through the territory of the CIS countries in order to increase grain export potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
- Modernization and technical re-equipment of enterprises of the processing industry, the introduction of advanced technology and quality management systems (ISO 9000, ISO 14000);
- Stimulating imports:
a) machinery and equipment intended for companies producing means of production for agricultural enterprises;
b) sets of production facilities for the manufacture of advanced industrial and agro-processing technologies;в) племенных животных высокопродуктивных пород и семян высокоурожайных и высокобелковых культур;
g) patents and licenses that promote indigenous scientific and technical re-equipment of AIC branches;
- Increasing the investment attractiveness of agriculture, the introduction of tax and other benefits that will contribute to the re-equipment of material and technical base of agrarian and industrial complex, the formation of smooth system of production, collection and processing of agricultural products, deliver it to processors and end users;
- Development of the system of leasing of equipment for the processing industry;
- Selective state support of efficient production, import substitution and have export potential;
- Consistent implementation of the policy of import substitution, the saturation of the domestic market a wide range of high-quality and competitive products of domestic production, the reduction of the import of the food that can be produced in Kazakhstan;
- Regulation of exports and imports on the basic strategic types of food: grain, meat, milk;
- The effective use of the potential of different soil and climatic and economic areas of the country in view of the deepening of specialization and creation on this basis specialized food zones;
- Implementation of targeted programs for the rehabilitation and development of industries such as the production of sugar beet, oilseed, oil, meat, milk and baby food;
- Rational distribution throughout the country enterprises for the processing of raw materials and agricultural products as close to their place of production, the expansion of the practice of the construction companies, workshops and productions directly to households;
- Optimization of production facilities pererabaty processing industry;
- A departure from the existing practice of regulating the grain market as a whole with the transition to the regulation of production and sale of each type of cereal, by setting priorities and priorities for use of available resources;
- Development and implementation of "green revolution" in agriculture mechanism, providing:
a. the introduction of new high-yielding crop varieties of domestic and foreign selection with a view to a sharp increase in food resources;
b. mechanization and chemicals used in agriculture;
c. Drainage and irrigation of land;
d. Restoration of fertility of degraded soils with humus content violated;
e. promotion of ecological and economic farming systems; - Creation of conditions and activation processes domestic food output to foreign markets, encouraging exports of grain and products of its processing;
f. Protection of the Republic of substandard food by improving the work of the standardization and certification of services and products to develop state standards for basic foodstuffs in order to harmonize the system with international standards;
g. Improving the agribusiness infrastructure, in particular, the establishment of large and medium cities, municipal wholesale food markets; - Preferential loans for the construction of the food market infrastructure and transport routes, subsidizing the tariffs for the supply of food from other regions;
h. The creation of an extensive network of procurement centers in all rural settlements of the republic, remote areas and distant areas with a high concentration of agricultural raw materials;
i. Stabilization of the food market by providing purchasing and commodity interventions;
j. Development of exchange trading system of food; - Improving the personnel system, scientific, legal and information support of agricultural enterprises; - Monitoring the food market and food security of Kazakhstan, the creation of mechanisms of public control of expediency of import and qualitative characteristics of imported food. 
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