Педагогические науки/5. Современные методы преподавания
Запорожский национальный университет, Украина
Principles and types of teaching design
Today in the domestic pedagogical science teaching design is treated as an independent, multifunctional, educational activity determining the creation of new conditions of the process of education and training or converting existing ones.
Design in pedagogy and education refers to the social sphere, and its product can be classified as humanitarian project. It is worth emphasizing that the aim of humanitarian design is improving the thing that is determined by the characteristics of human nature and human relations.
B. Slobodchikov wrote about two kinds of design, sharing:
- psychological and pedagogical design of educational processes, referring to education as means of development; forming as a development of a perfect form of action; education as maturation and socialization;
- social and pedagogical design of educational institutions and educational environment in which the appropriate processes are implemented.
According to I. Kolesnikova’s papers the concept of "pedagogical design" is used as a collective term and unites all kinds of project activity, the subject of which can be a teacher; these kinds of activity are committed to educational purposes or their outcome has educational implications.
Therefore, the researcher identifies the following types of teaching design that is actively being developed today:
- social and pedagogical design that aims to change the social environment or solve social problems by means of teaching methods;
- psychological and pedagogical design, whose goal is the transformation of human and interpersonal relations within the educational process;
- educational design with a focus on quality education and innovative changes in education systems and institutions.
Social and pedagogical design originally emerged in response to the desire, in the pedagogical interaction, to solve quite certain socially important problems facing children and adults in everyday life. At present, it mainly serves as the pedagogical regulation of socio-cultural environment, identifying and changing external factors and conditions that affect development, education, formation, socialization. The result of socio-pedagogical design often becomes the basis for more effective functioning of education systems, thus allowing changing potential possibilities of deploying of educational processes.
Psycho-pedagogical design involves the construction of models of processes associated with the transformation of the individual and interpersonal relationships, based on the characteristics of motivation, perception of information, learning, participation in activities, communication. In the center of its focus is the pedagogical process itself; conditions of effective training and education, educational technology; forms of interaction between students and teachers, means of personality self-designing.
As a part of teaching design some projects of the development of education are created in the country as a whole and in some definite regions. The projects to create educational institutions and to reform education authorities and their subordinate institutions are being actualized. Educational standards and content of education at all levels are being formed.
Considered positions determine the three main options of analysis and reconstruction of project context in education: socio-cultural, psychological, pedagogical and educational.
At present scientists have developed the following principles of teaching design:
- the principle of human priorities, which focuses on people – participants of subsystems, processes or situations. This priority means humanistic and nature-corresponding character of education;
- the principle of self-development of designed systems, processes, situations, which implies their creation as dynamic, flexible systems capable, in the implementation of the changes, to restructuring, complication or simplification;
- the principle of dynamism, which provides the system motion from the substance of the highest order to the essence of a lower order;
- the principle of completeness, which provides the realization of the system of requirements to the operation of a designed object;
- the principle of being diagnosed, which implies constant feedback, implementation of tools for measuring, monitoring the system in practice;
- the principle of structural integrity, responsible for establishing a strong relationship between the components of methodical system and stages of design and implementation in practice.
In summary, teaching design is a complex, independent phenomenon, understanding of which is not possible without reference to its roots, traditions and achievements of modern pedagogy, which in turn determines the methodology and prospects for further development.