Àëèìáàåâà Ê. Ò., Òàäæèáàåâà À.À.
Ðåãèîíàëüíûé ñîöèàëüíî – èííîâàöèîííûé óíèâåðñèòåò
Types of imagery
The category of imagery being much discussed still has some underwater stones and it is accounted for the different interpretations of the terms “image” and “imagery”. «Imagery means to use figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses. Usually it is thought that imagery makes use of particular words that create visual representation of ideas in our minds. The word imagery is associated with mental pictures. However, this idea is partially correct. Imagery, to be realistic, turns out to be more complex than just a picture» (Galperin, 1981).
Genetic roots of the phenomena category go back to the works by ancient philosophers - Aristotle, Cicero and others. A.A Potebnya and V.V. Vinogradov find the first scientific description of this notion in the theory of poetic image. They studied imagery at the level of text and regarded it as an important component of text semantics.
Narrower is the understanding of figurativeness of the speech which is based on the use of words in a figurative sense, with the changed semantics. At the same time the words receiving figurative meaning in the literary context to some extent lose the nominative function and acquire a bright expressional colouring.
According to D.U. Ashurova, “The deep structure of imagery consists of three components: 1. Image referent; 2. Image agent (reflected object); 3. Image basis (common features which arise from the principle of similarity)” . For example, her voice is music to his ears (This sentence implies that her voice makes him feel happy).In the sentence “her voice” is image referent, “music” is image agent then “the tone of music” and “the tone of voice” is served as an image basis (Ashurova, 2012).
In general, there are different trends in the study of imagery:
1. Some scholars claim that imagery is created by various image- bearing stylistic devices- metaphor, metonymy, simile, antonomasia, etc .
2. Others argue that imagery at the level of the text is not limited to the use of figurative means.
From the linguistic point of view, imagery is created by various stylistic devices: metaphor, metonymy, simile, periphrasis, euphemism, symbol, etc, manifesting different types of imagery:
1. Visual Imagery: relating to visual scenes, graphics, pictures, or the sense of sight.
Eg; The clouds were low and hairy like locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes. The iced branches shed ‘crystal shells.’
2. Auditory Imagery: relating to sounds, noises, music, sense of hearing or choosing words with a sound that imitates real sounds in the form of onomatopoeia. Words such as “bang!” “achoo!” “cacaw!” "buzz!" all work to describe sounds that most people are familiar with. Onomatopoeia is used mostly in poetry, but has its function in prose.
Eg.: Joanna, the minute she set her eyes on him, let loose the scream of her life. The rumbling sound of clouds, indicated start of monsoon.
3. Olfactory Imagery: is concerning aromas, smell, odors, scents, or the sense of smell.
Eg.:She smelled as sweet as roses. I was awakened by the strong smell of a freshly brewed coffee.
4. Gustatory Imagery: pertains to tastes, flavors, palates or the sense of taste.
Eg.: Christina served the bland sea-prawns pasta with the sweet marianasauce. Joshua touched the naked wire. It was the biggest mistake of his life.
5. Tactile Imagery: is concerning physical touches, textures or the sense of touch.
Eg.: The cold water touched his skin and he felt a shudder run down his spine. Chloe came running and touched every nook and corner of my face with her slobbering tongue.
6. Kinesthetic Imagery: pertains to movements or the sense of bodily motion.
Eg: Ange's heartbeat was so loud, she felt it could be heard across the room. The clay oozed between Jacob's fingers as he let out a squeal of pure glee.
7. Organic Imagery or Subjective Imagery: are the personal experiences of a character's physique, body, including emotion and the senses of hunger, thirst, fatigue, sickness, agony and pain.
Eg.: Life is too much like a pathless wood.
Thus, imagery is the author’s use of descriptive and figurative language to represent ideas, actions and entities in a way that it appeals to a reader’s physical sense. The novelist uses words and phrases to create “mental images” for the reader. Imagery is one of the strongest strategies in literature. The author’s writings are visualized more realistically with the help of imagery. Imagery awakens the reader’s sensory insights by using allusions, descriptive words, metaphors, personification and similes etc.
1. Ãàëüïåðèí È.Ð. Òåêñò êàê îáúåêò ëèíãâèñòè÷åñêîãî èññëåäîâàíèÿ. –Ì.: Íàóêà, 1981.
2. Ashurova D.U. Text Linguistics. Tashkent, 2012.