Ðàìàçàíè Ê. Ô.,Òàäæèáàåâà À.À.
Ðåãèîíàëüíûé ñîöèàëüíî – èííîâàöèîííûé óíèâåðñèòåò
Types of linguoculturemes
It is obvious to say that an extremely important role in the world picture representation is assigned to culture relevant language units – linguoculturemes. Unlike a word , a linguocultureme includes not only linguistic meaning, but also the cultural (non-linguistic) sense. For example, the word pub stands for “a public house” (linguistic meaning). But it is of great cultural significance for the English people. In Great Britain pubs serve as places where people gather to relax; some of them spend all their evenings after a hard working day there in a good company in order to discuss business affairs or political issues in a more comfortable atmosphere.
Russian scholar V. Vorobyov suggested the term “linguoculturemes” to denote culture relevant language units (Vorobyov, 2008). Linguocultureme – is a complex, interlevel language unit, a dialectical unit of both linguistic and extralinguistic factors, the correlation between the form of a verbal sign, its semantic content and cultural sense (Campbell, 2009).
Linguoculturemes can be expressed by various language forms including words, word combinations, text fragments, phraseological units, stylistic devices, syntactical structures and even the whole text. The sources of linguoculturemes can be different in every culture, for example, realia, geographical position, descriptive text, names of famous people, description of place, myths, legends, climate, images, beliefs, food, clothes customs and traditions. Accordingly, linguoculturemes can be presented by non-equivalent lexicon, anthroponyms, mythologemes, phraseological units, paroemia, speech forms of etiquette, image-bearing means, etc. Widely known of it are the followings:
1. Realia. It can be divided in different categories:
-geographical realia: canyon, rancho; names of plants: honey-dew (ìåäâÿíàÿðîñà), names of animals: grizzly (áîëüøîé ñåðûé ìåäâåäü).
-ethnographical realia: everyday life and household use words-hamburger, hot-dog, parka (îäåæäà ýñêèìîñîâ), saloon etc.
-transport: subway, cowboy, taxi;
-art and culture: country (ñåëüñêàÿ ìóçûêà), blues, banjo, pop-art, non-arm (íàïðàâëåíèå â ñîâðåìåííîì àâàíãàðäèñòñêîì èñêóññòâå).
-customs and rituals: inauguration, christening;
-holidays: Independence Day, Christmas, Easter, Mother’s Day etc.;
-myth: Goody Hallet, Achilles’ heel;
-cults: Mormos, Quakers, calumet (òðóáêà ìèðà);
-ethnical objects: Apache, doves, Michiganer;
-measurement and money: foot, bushel, a penny, a dime;
-socio-political realia: uptown, downtown, city hall, sheriff, marshal, the Senate;
-climate: Indian summer, the dead season
-natural phenomena: hurricane Katrina, Bonnie storm, hurricane Sandy;
Many people are spending the night in a respite centre after a tornado ripped through several streets in north-west.
-clothes: poncho, sombrero.
2. Proverbs and sayings: every dog is a lion at home; East or West-home is best; a friend in need is a friend indeed; a barking dog never bites; a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; better late than never; too many cooks spoil the broth; let sleeping dogs lie; a cheerful wife is the spice of life; all things come to those who wait; etc.
3. Aphorisms and quotations: If you want a thing done well, do it yourself (Napoleon); Necessity is a mother of invention (Plato); I hear and I forget. I see and I believe. I do and I understand (Confucius); When people talk listen completely. Most people never listen (Ernest Hemingway); The worst prison would be a closed heart (Pope John Paul II); If you have not any charity in your heart, you have the worst kind of heart trouble(Bob Hope); People who snore always fall asleep first(Bits & Pieces)
4. Stylistic devices: The Victorian Era; a Quilpish look; the tower of Babel; Solomon’s wisdom; Promethen fire; Uncle Tom; the American dream; the heart of the problem; to be on cloud seven; Pushkin of our days.
5. Text fragments: “One is the team spirit in cricket. You must never suggest in any sort of way that there are any individuals in cricket. It's the highest embodiment on earth of the Team.”(A. G. Macdonell, “England, Their England”; “…she pulled it out without breaking the root or any of the shoots, brought it to her yurta and put it on her pillow…”
1. Âîðîáüåâ Â.Â. Ëèíãâîêóëüòóðîëîãèÿ. –Ì.: ÐÓÄÍ, 2008.
2. Campbell G. (2009). The Symbol without Meaning p.153
3. Macdonell A. G. “England, Their England”