Sh.K. Тuleubayeva, R. Kovrezhkin
1Senior teacher, master, 2student
Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda
Alternative energy resources
Human life is unthinkable without energy. People usually use fossil fuels as energy resources: coal, gas, oil. However, as it is known, their reserves in nature are limited. And sooner or later the day will come when they run out. The question "what should we do when the energy crisis will come?" has the answer: it is necessary to look for other resources of energy: alternative, non-conventional, renewable. All kinds of solar radiation devices use solar energy as an alternative energy resource. Solar radiation can be used for the needs of district heating and to generate electricity (using photovoltaic cells). The advantages of solar energy include the renewability of this energy resource, noiseless, the absence of harmful emissions into the atmosphere during processing of solar radiation into other forms of energy. The disadvantages of solar energy is dependence on the intensity of solar radiation and daily and seasonal rhythms, and the need for large areas for the construction of solar power plants. Also a serious environmental problem is using photovoltaic cells which contain poisonous and toxic substances that create a problem of their disposal.
Homeowners are interested in alternative energy sources because solar power is cheap. But the mass introduction of devices working on the Sun light is constrained by high cost of equipment and the complexity of its selection and installation. Building a home solar power requires: to get acquainted with the principles of the scheme; determine the objectives of the equipment; choose the most suitable packaging station; conduct mechanical installation of all the elements; collection electric circuit; check availability and intelligently exploit.
Many practical experiments allow us to recommend a universal scheme for solving problems of using solar power for the home.
The structure of a typical household power circuit with solar cell include: solar module based on the individual photocells; controller; storage batteries of electric energy; inverter.
It should be a good understanding that the role of solar battery is to charge accumulators of the scheme that receive electricity from the solar modules, accumulate and transmit it to consumers.
The issue of creating a home station should begin with a definition of its load. For this purpose it is necessary to analyze all the users that will be working on solar energy. They are divided into two main classes: 1. The devices operating on AC 220 V; 2. radio-electronic and computer equipment, which operates from DC 12 / 24V voltage.
Electric refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners and other devices operate only on the supply ~ 220V / 50Hz. They have to be connected through the device, which generates sinusoidal harmonic with the necessary characteristics. This device is called an inverter.
Output capacity of inverter should ensure reliable operation of the connected consumers and even have a small margin.
The transition to using of solar power in the home should be combined with the replacement of the lighting network devices. The light bulbs should be immediately abandoned, or at least switch to energy-saving lamps, operating on the voltage = 24 / 12V. This eliminates the unnecessary wasting of energy, because they, like the rest of radio-electronic and computer equipment, can be powered directly from the DC power storage batteries.
It is needlessly to burden our construction by the unnecessary devices that would just warming surrounding air. The power supply circuit of each domestic helper should be well thought out and in this way should be simplified. This will require very little cost: cord cuts; standard adapters.
When we defined with the task of the batteries, we can select solar modules. The modern production produces a large range of different modules. They have different characteristics and opportunities.
Solar modules must: correspond to a storage battery by output voltage; have a capacity to give a nominal charging current to the battery. There is another device in this scheme that is the controller. It works like a mediator between solar panels and a cumulative battery The only task of the controller is to recharge storage batteries up to 14 ÷ 14.5 V. It does it in different ways and it works intermittently: at high solar activity; when it is no power consumption (batteries do not feed or do not need charge); low battery capacity when they can not cope with the load and the energy comes from solar module.
MTTP controller fully charges the battery. This is the most reliable, but the most expensive construction. Other models, especially the On / Off development, can be replaced by the power diode. He will not let the current to flow from the battery to the solar battery, prevent their discharge in the night.
In this method solar power station should not be left without load for a long time: the batteries will be recharged without any restrictions, and we need to ensure a balance between the charge and energy consumption.
In this case, you can exclude part of the solar cell from working or redirect it to a constant load: ventilation, heating, lighting.
Using a diode with the rejection of the controller reduces the cost of the scheme, but it requires more careful monitoring and make manual adjustments to the work. All the elements of a home solar power schemes works in the complex, and therefore should be well matched and balanced between themselves and consumers.
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2. Kashkarov А.P. Wind turbines, solar panels and other useful