Sovgira S.V., Goncharenko G.E., Lavryk O.D.
Uman State Pedagogical University named after Pavlo Tychyna, Ukraine
Sanitary health areas of middle city territory
With the objective understanding of maintenance of modern ecology, problems of ecological education , modern philosophical, psychological and pedagogical and ecological tendencies of decision of ecological problems of global scale the concept of ecologization is selected, as a process of introduction of the new technological systems, approaches in the decision of modern problems without the noticeable worsening, and vice versa with the purpose of improvement of natural environment and resources economy.
A new tendency in Ukraine, which develops, is an ecologization of education and ecologization of educational environment related to it – to the state of educational building, grounds round educational establishment, planting of greenery of his territory.
In Ukraine the ecologization of educational environment goes out from the structure of territorial resources (city gardens and parks, public gardens and boulevards, embankments, out-of-town parks, areas of rest), and also territorial activity of people. The areas of territories divide on:
- area of in-city territories of fellow creature – or to “territories near the threshold of house“, to which greenery of balconies and terraces, gardens belongs on roofs etc.;
- area of middle city territories – located in the distance 10-20 minute pedestrian or 10-15 a minute transport availability from habitation (district parks or parks of housings zones);
- area of distant in-city territories – located in the distance 20-30 a minute transport availability from habitation (city parks, forest-parks);
- area of out-of-town territories of fellow creature – is on contact city and suburban area boundaries with its forests, meadows, reservoirs or fields;
- area of middle out-of-town territories – is in an houred or one-and-half houered transport availability;
- area of distant out-of-town territories – is in two- or threehoured transport availability and located in national parks, territorial tourist complexes.
Educational establishments behave to the areas of middle city territories. In accordance with requirements their planting of greenery of tree blow up 10 m not nearer, but bushes – not nearer 5 m from building of educational establishment. The variety of assortment of tree-and-bushed breeds, grass and cultural plants must serve as original educational evident material. On 1200 ́2 of educational territory blow up 100-120 copies of trees and 1200 – 1500 copies of bushes. As a rule, the planted trees and shrubs areas are occupied by 40-50% territories of educational establishment.
On sanitary-hygenic indexes almost every educational establishment does not require an optimum norm (in all a 20-30% planting of greenery). Principal reasons - almost all of them are near-by streets with a large transport loading, and also trees are cut down through the considerable defeat of Viscum album L.
Planting on the areas of higher educational establishments is played mainly sanitary-hygenic and architectonically plan role. In their planning it is possible to select a parade orchestra before a main educational corps, alleys, which unite educational, production and sporting buildings, internal public garden. On a perimeter areas arrange insulating from streets, housings apartments and buildings of wall from trees with thick foliage and bushes.
An economic area is dissociated from other by territories green bars or high palisades from Viburnum opulus L., Humulus lupulus L., Juniperus sabina L. On free of roadway territory create lawns – orchestra or park. Being settled in areas of territories have a good kind alpine mountains with phytoncidal plants. They can be created and in apartments. Blowing up is recommended Helichrysum bracteatum Willd., Origanum vulgare L., Tussilago farfara L., Rhodiola rosea L., Sedum spurium Bieb., Thymus serpyllum L., Tanacetum vulgare L., Pyrethrum parthenium (L.) Smith., Melissa ficinalis L. At planting of greenery of audiences and class rooms it is possible to utillize room plants which place on walls or medical corners: Tradescantia zebrina L., Chorophytum commosum Thunb., Aloå arborescens Mill., Monstera deliciosa Liebm., Clivia nobilis Lindl. In period of October and November, and also in period of March and April make “Sasher” (linen knapsacks are for dry petals) with inflorescences, petals and sheets of Menta piperita L., Rosa damascene Mill., Anethum graveolens L., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill, Anisum vulgare Gaertn., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Crataegus monogyha Jacq., Syringa vulgaris L. The existent norms of planning are foreseen by the areas of lot lands of educational area depending on the type of higher educational establishment and contingent of students. On 1000 students for national universities 5,5-7,5 hectares are offered, technical higher educational establishments – 6-8 hectares, agrarian, – 7-8 hectares, medical, pedagogical, legal, – 3-4 hectares.
The green planting next to the decision of tasks of territorial character play an important architectonically composition role and are one of basic factors of realization of general layouts. At planning planting of greenery of educational establishments is taken into account his health action all over the year. Beautifully look out a spring Scilla bifolia L., Pulsatilla grandis Wend., Primula veris L., Adonis vernalis L., Anemone sylvestris L., Crocus heuffelianus Herb., Convallaria majalis L.; in summer – Rosa alba L., Lilium candidum L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Leucanthemum vulgare Lam., Calendula ficinalis L.; in autumn – Solitago graminifolia (L.) Salisb., Callistephus chinensis (L.) Ness, Dahlia pinnata Cav. Green the masses create in all of areas and along uniting them foot-ways.
Approximate correlation of higher educational establishment zone areas of territory (except for building) must be as follows: sporting - 15-25%, educational-experimental – 30-40, park – 45-50, economic – 5-10%.
No doubt an ecologization of studying environment and education is important component part of humanizing.