Forming of communicative competence on basic
of studying foreign lexic
Aikenova R., Abilova B.
Karagandy Medical Academy
Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Tendency of globalization in all spheres of life especially in the field of Language lead to the formation of new principal multivariate approach in teaching Russian. Inter-cultural communication in Language is one of the topical and important problem. The central figure in communicative process is a man and Language is his main mean of communication.
The process of borrowings from English becomes more intensive in Russian vocabulary nowadays. For the last years Neologisms came from one source, it is American English.
That process is connected especially with the development of market economy, new technologies, computer and information net. There is a necessity of meaning the new realities. That leads to the intensification of borrowings from English.
Mass media materials' pealing on TV and radio are the bright examples. The process of borrowing is happening constantly and can go out in the frames of narrow and professional use. The condition for using of borrowing words in the language is its communicative realization concrete meaning.
For example many definitions referring to such fields of activity as politics, economics, mass media, sport and etc. are topical in daily communication not only for specialists working in this sphere and also in simple people’s communication They often have foreign meanings: summit, voucher, default, sponsor, show, pairs, arm wrestling, freestyle and etc.
Less specialized spheres of society are characterized by communicative actualization of some kinds of definitions.
The problem of lexical borrowings from English was examined in many scientific works. For example V.M. Aristova, who distinguished three periods in the development of English and Russian Language contacts: the first period (1553-1649) – is the period in setting of trade Links between Englishmen and Russian the second period (1696-1775) is the period of the reigning of Great Peter and the third period is the period of the development of oral and written English and Russian bilinguals.
The next period beginning from 70 of the 20 century to nowadays is the period which is characterized by the intensification of English words. That period the USSR was shocked by new youth cultures which lead to the appearing of new word such as hippy, hard – pock, pock – and – roll and etc.
Transition to market economy gave a new impulse for the definition reign of new phenomenons in different fields: politics, economics, education, computer and information networks. Word – formation structure of such terms marks the tendency of regularity and repeatability of names.
Single words and morphemes are distinguished among these names. For example the word business come info the composition of following compound words such as business school, business plan, business centre, business seminar, business elite, business club. The word press – conference borrowed from English Keeps its derivative productive morpheme press in many compound words: press service, press – briefing, press – secretary, press centre and etc.
There are a lot of borrowings in fields where we don’t have any Russian terms and names. Nowadays it is difficult to present modern computer terminology without word “Internet”. At the beginning of 90 “browsers” were carried out for Virtual travel lings in World Wide Web.
Appearing of personal computers and their models is a promotion of translation computer journals where we can find a great number English terms and abbreviations which are given in English and in transliteration forms: internet, site, server, file, copy, www, provider and etc.
Modernization of national system of education taking in to account international standards was the main reason of borrowing from English. Such words as accreditation, marketing, management audit and also abbreviations ISO, EFM.D, CAMAN, SAS, SGS and etc.
For example, our choice is explained by the circumstance, that “Medeu – Consulting” works under aegis the company SGS which makes the certification in accordance with the system of management standards ISO S001: 2000 on the basis of accreditation SAS/ Swiss committee.
The formation of new words in modern Russian is being done with the help of existing Russian words and root morphemes Many of borrowing terms can keep their origin, their pronunciation is being formed by Russian script: shop-tour, public-rating, mass-media, business-forum, media-forum, image maker speechwriting. Other words will be translated partially if the Language has analogous word or combination of words.
Russian vocabulary also contains Kazakh vocabulary which is designed by Russian script. It shows the growing role of Kazakhstan on the world market. As a rule these are names of enterprises, joint – stock companies, contraction holding companies (Kazakh oil, Moonstone, Astana – holding and etc).
Many scientists working on the problems of borrowing from English marks that a lot of words according to their prestige and popularity displace use of Russian words. For example, The word “businessman” is used together with the word “ïðåäïðèíèìàòåëü”, presentation – ïðåäñòàâëåíèå, image – îáðàç and etc. So, the borrowing process from English is being constantly happened. Russian vocabulary is being filled up by new foreign words which have sometimes social prestige than original words.
Words expressing general object in the most considerable and prestigious sphere as are in the borrowing Language.
For example French word “boutique means small shop and now in Russian it means a Large shop of fashion clothes. In Russian the word shop” means shops which sell prestigious goods, but we can’t name the places where we can buy food. That high position can help to strengthen the word in the borrowing Language.
Borrowing and use of foreign words is often connected with the tendency to the specialization of terms in several fields, for several purpose. For example There are pairs such as ïðåäóïðåäèòåëüíûé – preventive, óáèéöà – killer, ïðåäñòàâëåíèå – presentation and some euphemistic and veiling changes in the field of anatomy and physiology: pediculosis instead of âøèâîñòü, cancer instead of ðàê and etc.
All borrowings in medicine were authorized according to their ethical norms, but term “user” in professional Language of programmers wasn’t authorized. Obviously, if the definite term affects vitally important interests of people, its indicating word will be useful.
For example there are themes which are connected with different kinds of criminal offences and public moral nuisances: bribe – taking, murder, prostitution, drug addiction.
The discussion of these themes isn’t managed without use of the words of foreign origin. Jargons are widely used together these words. For example: corruption, killer, meddler, narcotic, drug addict, drug dealer, traffic and etc.
There are lot of English terms and abbreviations in a type of transplants and transliterate words.
Among these words we can find English computer borrowings technical and scientific terms, names of sport terms, names of television broadcast Normative dictionaries contain all these borings. It means that they have competent existence in Russian.
So, the process of borrowing from other Languages was caused by natural process of communication between people owing to economic, trade, political and cultural relations. Analysis of English and Russian vocabulary allows us to conclude that process of English borrowings became historically conditional and continue to become more intensive nowadays affecting different life regions of society.
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