Ïåäàãîãè÷åñêèå íàóêè/5.Ñîâðåìåííûå ìåòîäû ïðåïîäàâàíèÿ.
Candidate of engineering sciences, docent Koyshieva T.K.,
senior teacher Mindetbaeva A.A.,
senior teacher Yespembetova A.M.
Hoja Ahmet Yassawi Kazakh-Turkish International University of Turkistan
DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES OF APPLICATION
OF COMPUTER TUTORIALS
Efficiency of any kind of training depends on a number of components: technical base, efficiency of the developed methodical materials; the technologies of training used at the organization of training. Such necessary components punched to itself road a method of the automated training. The theoretical studies executed at formation of a method of automated training, it is possible and it is necessary to use and by working out of other methods of training on the basis of computer techniques, taking into account use of additional didactic possibilities of a modern level of development of techniques and telecommunications. Computer training programs and new information-educational means organically join in modern technologies of training.
Didactic role and functions of application of each tutorial are pawned at a design stage and manufacturing of the last. It is possible to allocate following basic didactic principles of application of computer tutorials:
compensatorness - simplification of process of training, reduction of expenses of time and forces trained on understanding and material studying;
informativeness - transfer of the necessary and additional information for training;
integrities - consideration of studied object or the phenomenon in parts and as a whole;
Reliability - possibility of preparation of a qualitative training material for an unlimited audience on number;
Presentation - use of possibilities of the modern computer in representation of a training or information material;
Virtuality - possibility of demonstration of the simulated processes or events which cannot be presented really;
Interactivity - possibility of realization of a principle of an individualization of training and obligatory activity trained;
Intermediary - management of mastering process through presented in Computer means of Learning (KML) algorithms and a training material. This principle has two parties: positive - an exception of subjectivity of the teacher; negative - loss of a speech component at training and considerable reduction of time of direct dialogue with the teacher;
Independence - use possibility trained KML both during convenient time, and in a convenient place (from the house computer, for example);
Mass character - granting of possibility to the teacher of carrying out of training and the control for unlimited quantity trained which work in the computer environment according to the person-focused model of the trained;
Adaptability to manufacture - possibility of reception and statistical processing of results of training and the control and a presentation, the last in the convenient form and at any time both trained, and to the teacher.
At the organization of employment, both in the traditional form, and with use of computer tutorials the teacher should execute a number of the general didactic requirements:
- Carrying out of the analysis of the purposes of employment, its maintenance and logic of studying of a material;
- Thorough training of a training and supervising material: accurate formulation of all definitions of a studied subject domain, allocation of the main positions which should be acquired trained (the facts, hypotheses, laws ); working out of a necessary didactic material;
- Choice of necessary tutorials according to the employment purposes;
- Working out of a technique of application of the chosen tutorials.
In traditional training the teacher carries out a role of the "filter" passing through the educational information, more often. At computer training to the teacher more creative role - a role of the instructor and the adviser in the work, one of sources of the additional information is taken away. In comparison with traditional in computer training interaction of subjects of educational process changes also. In the computer environment of training the trained act not as passive "trained" (observers), and full participants (training trained), their own experience is important not less than experience of the creative teacher which does not give ready knowledge, and induces to independent search of the necessary information and formation of the knowledge.
Computer means are even more often used in the course of training as become a technological basis of modern formation, studies; promote development of new methods of the organization and conducting educational process.
Computer tutorials have many advantages and advantages. In the computer environment of training the approach is realized, efficiency and execution of any inquiry to system is provided, possibility of instant correction of the admitted errors is provided not only reception in real time of results of activity trained, but also. It also allows the teacher to realize an individual approach in training.
Let's allocate the most significant, from the point of view of didactic principles, the methodical purposes which are most effectively realized with use of computer means:
differentiation of process of training;
Possibility of stage-by-stage advancement trained to an object in view on lines of various degree of complexity;
- Control with a feedback, with diagnostics of errors;
- Self - checking and self - correction realization; Realization of training in the course of mastering educational a floor-mat Rail and self-preparation trained,
- Liberation of school hours at the expense of performance on the computer of labor-consuming calculations;
- Increase of presentation of representation of the educational information, and. If necessary - demonstration in development, in time and spatial movement, representation of graphic interpretation of investigated law of studied process;
- Modeling and imitation of studied or investigated objects, processes or the phenomena,
- Carrying out of laboratory works (for example, on the physicist, chemistry) in the conditions of imitation in the computer program of real experience or experiment;
- Creation and use of the information databases necessary in educational activity, and providing of access to the distributed information resources of a computer network;
- Strengthening of motivation of training (for example, at the expense of graphic means or use of game situations);
- Arms trained by a technique of mastering of a teaching material;
- Development of a certain kind of thinking (for example, visually - figurative, theoretical);
- Formation of ability to make the optimum decision of the decision in a difficult situation.
Possibility of application KML at carrying out of laboratory and practical works eliminates time rupture between reception of theoretical knowledge and their valid mastering, promotes áîëüøåé to independence in training. Competently developed from the methodical and technological points of view computer tutorials allow to come nearer to the decision of many problems of training.
The primary goal of introduction of computer technologies of training is modeling of the environment of training for independent work trained in individual rate and, at necessity, the unlimited right of repeated access to any information resources, including to a teaching material for self-preparation and self-checking.
The skilled teacher on the basis of the analysis of own work can tell, that rate of a statement of a material on employment and rate of work of trainees on a practical training does not suit with a practiced basic part, on the average, 20-30 % of the last (and, among them basically capable, quickly acquiring a material, or poor for various reasons).
Such work on «the average trainee» often leads to decrease in interest to study of "strongest" and still áîëüøåìó to backlog of "weak".
Has received already practical acknowledgement, that KML by the didactic possibilities actively influence all components of system of training: the purposes, the maintenance, methods and organizational forms of training, allow to put and solve much more difficult and extremely actual problems of pedagogic - problems of development of the person, its intellectual, creative potential, analytical, critical thinking, independence in acquisition of knowledge, work with various sources of the information. Unlike usual means of training, KML allow not only to put the information transfer problem, as much as possible ready, strictly selected, appropriate amount of the organised knowledge, but also to develop intellectual creative abilities, aspiration trained independently to acquire new knowledge, to work with various sources of the information.
For successful and purposeful use in educational process KML teachers (first of all - the teacher of computer science) should know the general description of principles of functioning and didactic possibilities of these means "build in" them educational process, in other words - to use various computer tutorials on studies.
Summing up the analysis of possibilities of use KML, reflecting the most widespread tendencies of application of computer means in the educational purposes, it is necessary to note the following:
- The computer means used in the educational purposes, basically, are focused on formation of abilities and the relation to independent work, on realization of self-checking, self-correction of educational activity; on development of abilities of work with the information and relations to it; on formation of computer literacy;
- Strengthening of the didactic importance of computer means is reached as a result of use of means of the modern computer drawing providing increase of presentation of the training material, creation of models of studied objects, processes, and also for creation of various kinds and the forms of independent work trained with the educational information; the user packages, another;
- The considerable attention is given to organization of various kinds "screen creativity", promoting aesthetic education trained, to increase of motivation of training;
- The overwhelming majority of the computer means used with a view of training is focused on performance of game educational activity which stimulates processes of mastering of a teaching material;
- Prominent feature of application KML is granting trained a variety of organizational forms of educational activity and possibility of a free choice of an individual operating mode behind the computer;
- And many other things application directions known and while not opened.
Computer tutorials should be considered as one of active forms of an individualization of the training, demanding from trained direct participation in formation of the level of readiness in the given subject. Possibility granting trained by means of KML individual rate of consideration of a material, an independent choice of a trajectory of training; increase of independence and objectivity of the control; granting of a freedom in choosing of time and a training place, induce teachers-researchers to search and working out of innovative technologies of training.
Introduction of any new educational technology and tutorials an uneasy problem. Educational technologies and training means cannot be bad or good in itself, better or worse, at comparison of one with others. Reception of efficiency, intensity, activation or an individualization of educational process and communications depends in áîëüøåé degrees on how they are used, what problems at their application dare. Each innovative tutorial has strong and weaknesses, therefore a flexible combination of well recommended and innovative tutorials, the counterbalanced balance of a variety - the best way of their use and achievement of the purposes of improvement of quality of training.
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