THE EMERGENCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE RARE PLANTS OF THE ALMATY NATURE RESERVE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS
AbstractAnnotation. This article discusses the morphological changes in the structure of rare plants in their adaptation to the external environment conditions and some extreme factors. Species suggested in the research are rare ornamental plants widely used in landscaping and listed in the Red Book: Iris albertii Regel, Tulipa kolpakovskiana Rege. The reaction of adaptation of the plants has been studied at the level of ultrastructure. Key words: monitoring, human factors, adaptation, rare plants, the electron microscope, endemic species, red book, dorsoventrally structure, sclerenchyma, epidermis, mesophyll hlorenhima, Flåm, xylem List of the plants registered in the Red Book is a valuable fund of the plant world of Kazahstan. The mankind understands the importance of maintaining bio diversity not only at the ,level of the globe, but also at the national level. As an example of this there can serve a program "Biological Species", developed on the basis of the International Convention on the Conservation of Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), adopted by the General Assembly of the International Union of Biological Sciences (1992), with the support of UNESCO. The latter was adopted in Kazakhstan (1995), based on it there has developed a program called "Biological Species". Protection of rare and endangered species of plants is considered to be particularly relevant in terms of conservation of biological species and their individual species ( population) . The reserve has a variety of species: honey - 93 species, vitamin - 41 species, therapeutic – 80, food – 35, coloring – 8, phytoncidal - 9, forage - more than 110, decorative - 35, giving essential oils – 20, used in leather processing – 10, used to produce new species when hybridization - 18, giving scaffolding - 7, weed - 16, poisonous – 22, ancient species – 14, endemic species – 18, listed in the Red book - 28 . Two major mountain ranges in the south-east of Kazakhstan are Ily and Jungar Alatau; out of them Ily Alatau has special anthropogenic interference with the natural plant community. It is due to the fact that at the foot of the mountain there is the largest city of the republic, which is home to about half a million people.  Through continuous monitoring of air purity of the environment, you can see the state of pollutants under the influence of anthropogenic factors, quantity, sources. Almaty according to the findings of KAZHYDROMET observations in 2011, it came in the first place, showing a high level of air pollution of cities in Kazakhstan. Almaty today is on the list of 25 most polluted cities in the world.
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Key words: monitoring, human factors, adaptation, rare plants, the electron microscope, endemic species, red book, dorsoventrally structure, sclerenchyma, epidermis, mesophyll hlorenhima, Flåm, xylem.