THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
AbstractThe analysis of mental development must be based on the principle of continuity of the mutual conditionality of the content and form of thinking (Vygotsky). Violation of this connection reduces the effectiveness of thinking. If the content of thought reflects significant social and cultural environment that has characterized the life and work of the individual, the assimilation of the contents is formed due to his mental development, and his mental capacity may not be sufficient for the assimilation of new content . Thus, in all three cases, the man sets the invisible relations between things, i.e. thinks in different ways, using different tools, and different ways. In the first case, it is practical thinking, clearly effective, as the person acts with visual objects to clarify relations, thus he almost modifies their composition, qualities. In the second case, thinking is evident-shaped as the person acts with object images only mentally, if the object is currently present here or with object views, if the object is missing. In the third case, the thinking is verbal-logical as for clarifying the relations the person uses words (and not the objects themselves and their images), which only represent objects, he builds judgments from these words that are linked by the rules of logic, from general to specific . So, human thinking is carried out in three ways: visual - efficient, visual-figurative and verbal–logical. Thinking of children of primary school age is significantly different from the thinking of preschool children. A preschooler has the quality of involuntariness, small handling both in setting tasks and in solving it. Preschoolers are more likely to think about what they are interested in. Primary students need to perform regular assignments without fail, learn to control their thinking when they study at school. In many ways, the formation of such an arbitrary, controlled thinking contributes to the instructions of the teacher in the classroom that encourages children to think. In primary school conscious critical thinking of children is formed. This is due to the fact that the class discusses ways of solving the task, different solutions are considered, the teacher requires students to justify, to prove the correctness of his judgment, i.e., asks children to solve problems autonomously. The ability to plan the actions is also actively formed in junior schoolchildren in the process of school learning because the school encourages children firstly trace the plan of solving the problem, and only then to proceed to practical solutions . The younger student regularly and necessarily integrates into the system when he argues, compares different opinions, draws inferences. Therefore, in the early school years, the third type of thinking, verbal and logical abstract thinking, starts to develop rapidly in contrast to the visual - effective and visual - creative thinking of preschool children. In primary classes such techniques of logical thinking as a comparison with the isolation and the verbal marking of the various properties and characteristics of generalization in the subject are formed. This type of thinking is associated with distraction from non-essential features of the subject and merging the features on the basis of common essential features. In the educational process children's thinking becomes more arbitrary, more programmable, more conscious, more planned, i.e. it becomes verbal - logical. And of course other kinds of thinking are developed at this age, but the main direction falls on the formation of methods of reasoning and conclusions. Teachers know that thinking of children of the same age is quite different; some children solve problems of a practical nature easily when it requires the use of techniques of visual - active thinking. Others find it easier to do tasks associated with the need to imagine and to represent any state or phenomenon, the third part of children find it easier to build the reasoning and inference that allows them to more successfully solve mathematical problems, to deduce general rules and use them in specific situations. And finally, if the child successfully solves easy and complex tasks in the appropriate form of thinking and may even help the other children in solving the easy task to explain the cause of the errors they committed, and can come up with easy tasks, he has the third level of development in the appropriate form of thinking. Thus, the levels of thinking in children of the same age are quite different. Therefore, the task of educators and psychologists is a differentiated approach to the development of thinking in younger students. At present, in the rapidly changing world that requires human skills to navigate the new and often uncertain, unusual situations, the vital objective of the school is the intellectual development of students. However, in the system of modern education and psychological science there are the contradictions, which act as constraints to the intellectual development of junior schoolchildren. The first is the contradiction between the need for a creative approach to teaching and his reliance mainly on reproductive activities of students. The learning process relies heavily on the cognitive capabilities of children, such as assimilation of knowledge, formation of abilities and skills based on perception, memory, thinking, and imagination. However, the cognitive abilities of the child are not used as a means of intellectual development of junior schoolchildren. The second contradiction is the contradiction between the reliance of the school on the individual development of students and collective nature of the learning process. On the one hand, the central figure of the teaching is the personality of the child, and the purpose of education is creation conditions for revealing and development of the internal capacity of each individual. On the other hand, teaching children is, by its nature, of mass proportions, and the possibilities of development of personal mechanisms of regulation and self-regulation of intellectual development of junior schoolchildren are limited .
1. Vygotsky L.S. (1997). Imagination and creativity in childhood: the scientific edition. Saint-Petersburg: The Union, p. 93. [in Russian].
2. Nemov R.S. General Psychology. - M., 2003. - 608 p. [in Russian].
How to Cite
Sarsekeyeva, Z., & Livinets, N. (2020). THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN. Pridneprovskiy Scientific Bulletin, 11(667). Retrieved from http://www.rusnauka.com/index.php/rusnauka/article/view/1446